World War II - Ms. Thatcher's Class Page

World War II - Ms. Thatcher's Class Page

World War II and the Cold War This war is a new kind of war. It is warfare in terms of every continent, every island, every sea, every air lane. Franklin Roosevelt from one of fireside chats 2 months after the US became embroiled in war 1942 Mobilize every material and human resource Every weapon known to humanity used Every part of the world

Japans War in China Global conflict began when Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 Mukden Incident 1933 League of Nations condemns Japan so they leave 1937 Japan launches full invasion of China Japanese soldiers execute Chinese prisoners. In the Japanese invasion of China, four hundred thousand Chinese died when the

Japanese used them for bayonet practice or executed them. The Rape of Nanjing First war against civilians Aerial bombing of urban centers Rape of 7,000 women, murder of hundreds of thousands of unarmed soldiers and civilians Burned 1/3 of Nanjing 400,000 Chinese lost their lives as Japanese soldiers used them for bayonet practice and machine-gunned them into open

pits Nanjing Massacre Memorial Japan in China Japanese soldiers in 1938 engaged in strenuous physical education and kept fit in order to fight the Chinese. Chinese Resistance Nationalists and Communists formed united front against Japanese

Unable to work effectively Communist used guerilla warfare against them No air force and artillery, so use hit and run operations from the mountains Sabotage bridges and railroads They gained loyalty of Chinese peasants through their resistance Italian Aggression WWI , 600,000 soldiers died Italians felt they slighted in Paris Peace Conference

Mussolini promises to bring glory and empire Conquest of Ethiopia in 1935-36 Killed 250,000 Ethiopians League of Nations offered no opposition Intervened in Spanish Civil War on side of General Francisco Franco who overthrew govt Goal was to create an empire, but never did Conquest of Ethiopia Ethiopian soldiers train with outmoded equipment that proves no match for Italian forces. At the end of the Great War, Italy, under Benito Mussolini, sought

to redress perceived wrongs that denied it territorial gain by conquering Ethiopia with an army of a quarter-million soldiers. Germany Hitler in power in 1933 Refers to the WWI armistice as the November Crime Hitler blamed it on Jews, communists, liberals 1933 Withdraw from The League of Nations Reinstates military service to strengthen it in 1934

March 1938 Germany forced Anschlus with Austria or union 1938 Hitler demands control of Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia No one stops this Peace for Our Time 1938 Munich Conference Italy, France, Britain, and Germany attend Germany appeased by allowing him Sudetenland in w. Czechoslovakia British Prime Minister returns to

announce Peace for our time 1939 Hitlers troops moved into Czechoslovakia Policy of appeasement abandoned by Britain and France & guarantee to protect Poland Russian-German Nonaggression Pact Nazi-Soviet Pact promised neutrality in the event of war with a third party Prevents war on 2 fronts Also divided eastern Europe into 2

for Germany/Soviet Union From : Daily Mail, London, 23 June 1941 How does the artist convey who the cartoon is about? What is the artists reason for the polite words Forgive me comrade? What is the source? Is there a significance to the date?

What is the point of the cartoon? Blitzkrieg Strategy of a lightning war Fighter planes scatter troops and take out communications Tanks go through defenses Infantry encircle & capture enemy troops Damage economy w/ blockades, sub attacks, and bombing raids Sept. 1, 1939 Nazi invasion of Poland

Within 1 month, Poland is defeated Hitler divides it with the Soviet Union His blitzkreig strategy works Blitzkreig German dive-bombers like this one dominated the early air war in World War II and played a significant role in Blitzkrieg. Soviets troops occupy eastern half of Poland Move to annex Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia

Finland resisted when 1,000,000 Soviet troops invade Finns defend on skis but will still be defeated Battle of the Atlantic German U-boats against the British ship convoys British convoys carry food and war material to the fronts Phony War

France and Britain declare war on Germany Sept. 3, 1939 Stationed troops on Maginot Line, a system of fortifications along Frances border with Germany Siegfried Line was the German fortifications Nothing happened Nicknamed sitzkrieg or sitting war or phony war The Fall of France Nazis swiftly conquered Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands Part of the strategy to invade France

Invade France Squeezed through Belgium/Luxembourg and the Maginot Line and reach French coast in 10 days French sign armistice in June 1940 Same railcar as the Germans were forced to sign in WWI Adolf Hitler proudly walks through conquered Paris in 1940, with the Eiffel Tower as a backdrop. Italys Mussolini joins Nazis to

reap the rewards Rescue at Dunkirk Germans trap Allied troops around the northern city of Lille Allies were outnumbered, outgunned retreat to Dunkirk Great Britain sends a fleet of 850 ships to rescue soldiers Royal Navy ships and civilian crafts Yachts, lifeboats, motorboats, fishing boats May 26 June 4 carried 338,000 soldiers to safety French Government in Exile French sign armistice in June

22, 1940 Same railcar as the Germans were forced to sign in WWI After fall, Charles de Gaulle sets up a government in exile in London De Gaulle speaking on BBC radio In London during the War Committed to reconquer France Organized the Free French

military forces who battled the Nazis until liberation in 1944 It is the bounden (obligatory) duty of all Frenchmen who still bear arms to continue the struggle. For them to lay down their arms, to evacuate any position of military importance, or agree to hand over any part of French territory, however small, to enemy control would be a crime against our country.

General Charles de Gaulle, quoted in Charles de Gaulle: A Biography Battle of Britain Germans strategy to defeat Britain solely through airstrikes The Blitz

Knock out the RAF and then land 250,000 on Englands shores Summer of 1940 target British airfields and factories By September, focus on cities London Aerial bombing killed 40,000 British civilians RAF prevented defeat and force him to abandon plans in May 1941 Radar could tell #, speed, direction of incoming planes

German code-making machine Enigma smuggled enabled them to decode German message From 7 September to 2 November 1940 the city of London was bombed every single night without miss. Buckingham Palace was struck twice, though it was the working-class East End and the dockyards that were heaviest hit during the Blitz. The pounding continued well into 1941, with massive raids in March, April, and May.

On 10 May, London suffered its worst raid ever: 1,436 people were killed, Westminster Abbey and the Tower of London were damaged, the House of Commons destroyed. Rubble blocked a third of Londons streets. London Strikes King George VI and Queen Elizabeth(Queen Mum) When Buckingham Palace was

bombed in September 1940, some officials wanted to keep the news quiet. Stupid fools! Spread the news at once! Let the humble people of London knowthat the King and Queen are sharing the perils with them! Winston Churchill 1940

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother) inspect bomb damaged suffered by Buckingham Palace, London, during the "Blitz late 1940. The Queen was quoted as remarking, "At least I can now look the East End in the eye" - the East End of London, a port and commercial area at the time, had suffered particularly heavily in the "Blitz". Battle of Britain At the height of the Blitz, 177,000 people were sleeping in Londons

Underground, putting into public view the most private of habits while some 1.3 million Londoners were evacuated to the country side. London Bombing The devastation caused by German bombardments is visible in the wreckage of a London neighborhood in 1944. Germany in N. Africa and

Balkans Summer 1941, Germans control Balkans and N.Africa B/C of British resistance, Hitler turns to North Africa and Balkans then to Soviet Union Mussolinis armies attack British-controlled Egypt Hitler sends General Erwin Rommel to attack British forces against Italians Nicknamed Desert Fox

High tide of Axis expansion in Europe and north Africa, 19421943. German Invasion of the Soviet Union Operation Barbarossa June 1941, German surprise invasion of the Soviet Union Largest and most powerful invasion force in history w/ 3.6 million soldiers, 3,700 tanks, 2,500 planes

Front of 1,900 miles Took Stalin by surprise By Dec. 1941, Germans had reached Leningrad and gates of Moscow Leningrad in 1941 Siege of Leningrad 1941-1942 Russians use scorched earth policy Germans cut off Leningrad and try to

force surrender Bomb warehouses People eat cattle and horse feed, cats, dogs, crows and rats Russian men and women rescue their humble belongings 1 million die from their burning homes, said to have been set on fire by the Russians, part of a scorched-earth policy, in a Leningrad suburb on October 21, 1941. German infantrymen in heavy winter gear march

next to horse-drawn vehicles as they pass through a district near Moscow, in November 1941. Winter conditions strained an already thin supply line, and forced Germany to halt its advance - leaving soldiers exposed to the elements and Soviet counterattacks, resulting in heavy casualties and a serious loss of momentum in the war. Nazi drive in Moscow on Oct. 2, 1941 Soviet counterattack in December German soldiers retreat

(summer uniforms) Hitler orders No retreat Hold line until March 1943 Blitzkrieg Fails in Russia Soviets have tremendous reserves in military, industrial capacity Allied aids with trucks and equipment Germans face 360 Soviet divisions of the Red Army against their 150 German divisions

Russian winter caught Germans unprepared Battle of Stalingrad Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943 Turning point in the war and bloodiest battle in history Key to the Volga River and supply of oil German and Soviet soldiers fought over every street and house Stalin ordered commanders to defend the city named after him to the death

Feb. 1943 remnants of German army surrendered Hitler lost and was his last chance of defeating Soviets Stalingrad, Feb. 1943 90,000 frostbitten, half-starved Germans surrender All that remained of the 330,000 German army The defense of Stalingrad cost the

Soviets 1 million soldiers City was 99% destroyed German POWs waiting for a train Battles in Asia and Pacific US support of Allies before Pearl Harbor Lend-Lease Program 1941 Lend or lease arms or supplies Roosevelt sold and then loaned

arms and war material to the British By summer 1941, US was escorting British ships carrying US arms Hitler orders subs to sink any cargo ship Later supplied the Soviets and the Chinese President Roosevelt signing the Lend-Lease in March of 1941 Atlantic Charter Goals and aims for the

war and post-war Europe It upheld free trade among nations and the right of people to chose their own govt FDR and Churchill issue joint declaration on Aug. 14, 1941 aboard ship Japanese expansion into Indochina Japanese troops enter Saigon 1941

July 1941, Japanese overran French Indochina US froze Japanese assets and implemented an oil embargo Demanded w/drawal from China and se Asia Japan wanted to clear the way for conquest and create a defensive perimeter around Japans homeland Plan of attack done by Prime Minister Tojo Hideki and Admiral Yamamoto US fleet in Hawaii was a dagger pointed at our throat

December 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy. Attack on Pearl Harbor Devastated the US naval power in the Pacific 19 ships damaged or sunk 8 battleships included 2,300 Americans killed 1,100 wounded US declares war on

Japan German and Italy declare war on US USS Arizona, 1,117 men on board killed Flames consumed U.S. battleships in Pearl Harbor after the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941. Pearl Harbor Memorial Aerial view of the USS Arizona Memorial at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The ships wreckage has been leaking oil for nearly 70 years.

In Memory Elvis performed a benefit concert at the Pearl Harbor Bloch Arena on March 25, 1961, which raised more than $50,000 for the construction of the national memorial at Pearl Harbor. Monument was dedicated in 1962. Japanese Internment Camps After the Pearl Harbor attack, Americans expressed great hostility toward the Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans living in the United States, primarily on the west coast. In 1942 President Franklin Roosevelt authorized the forcible removal of approximately 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans to relocation or internment camps. This photograph from Seattle in March 1942 shows both the gloom and the patriotism of those on a train bound for a camp; the family is flashing the World War II V for victory sign

while a boy holds the American flag. The Japanese Empire at its Height Seize SE Asia Philippines, Burma, Siam, French Indochina, Dutch East Indies Try to win support with slogan Asia for Asians Still treat colonies w/ cruelty 1 million square miles and 150 million people

Worse treatment for Allied POWs Bataan Death March Forced march for 55 miles to the POW camp on Bataan Peninsula. Of the 70,000 POWs only 54,000 survived. I was questioned by a Japanese officer, who found out that I had been in a Philippine Scout Battalion. They hated the ScoutsAnyway, they took me outside and I was forced to watch as they buried six of my Scouts alive. They made the men dig their own graves, and then had them kneel down in a pit. The guards hit them over the head with shovels to stun them and piled earth on top. Lieutenant John Spainhower, quoted in War Diary 1939-1945.

War in the Pacific Doolittle Raids: April 1942 American planes bombed Tokyo 16 B-25 bombers Led by Lieutenant Colonel James H. Doolittle Little damage but important psychologically for US May 1942 US Navy defeats Japanese at Battle of the Coral Sea Stops their plans to conquer Australia

Douglas McArthur and IslandHop Strategy Commander of the Allied troops in Pacific His Island-Hop strategy was to leapfrog over the heavily fortified Japanese positions Storming each island would be long and costly Concentrate on islands that are not well defended but capable of supporting the drive to the Japanese mainland Battle of Guadalcanal was first target

Battle of Midway, June 1942 Key American airfield in Pacific Japanese strike in June 1942 American pilots destroy 332 Japanese planes, 4 aircraft carriers, one support ship American victory turns tide of the war

Sinking of Japanese ship Mikuma The End of the War Soviet Union Battle of Stalingrad gave the Soviet Union the advantage By 1943, Red Army pushed Germans back toward Germany Italy July 1943 Allies capture Sicily and invade Italy Italy signs armistice but

Germans hold off for 2 years We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender. Winston Churchill, June 4, 1944 given to

Parliament D-Day Invasion, June 6, 1944 Operation Overlord General Dwight Eisenhower as commander of the Allied forces planned the attack Dummy army set up across from French seaport of Calais British, American, and Canadian troops land on coast of Normandy Largest seaborne assault in history 3,000 American soldiers died that day

American Cemetery in Normandy President George W. Bush in January 2009 French Liberation More than 1 million troops landed Allies punch holes in German defenses near Saint-Lo August 1944 Allies march into Paris

By September all of France liberated American troops march down Champs Elysee on August 25, 1944 End of War in Europe Berlin 1945 February 1945 Allies launch massive air strikes on Dresden, se of Berlin 35,000-135,000 women, children,

elderly killed (varies) Symbolic for total war on military & civilians March 1945 the Allies cross into Germany Six million Soviet troops approach from east Surround Berlin V-E Day: May 7,1945 Germans surrender, one week after Hitler commits suicide Victory Parade in June 1945, Red

Square, Moscow Iwo Jima and Okinawa Japanese use their kamikazi pilots Island 600 miles from Tokyo American marines take it in March 1945 Okinawa Japanese lost 110,000 troops to Americans 12,500 Okinawan citizens refused to surrender

Flag raising in Iwo Jima March 1945 US convinced that Japanese will not surrender Japanese Surrender US firebombing raids devastate cities August 6, 1945, US drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima killing b/n 70-80,000 people, 120,000 die from burns and radiation August 9, another destroys

Nagasaki 37,500 killed Sept. 2, Japanese surrender to General MacArthur Japanese Surrender A photograph titled Planes over Tokyo Bay, taken from the U.S.S. Missouri, visually captured a sense of U.S. power and victory on V-J Day, 1945.

V-J Day Japanese surrender to General Douglas MacArthur on Sept. 2 on the US battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay Victory in Japan Day-Times Square, Sept. 1945 Holocaust Calculated policy of exterminating whole races of people

Jews deprived of citizenship and legal rights Jewish population sent to ghettos in major cities Die of starvation & disease 1942, Nazis carry out Hitlers Final Solution lebensunwertes Leben or Life unworthy of life Use modern industrial methods to slaughter humans 1,000s supported and aided the genocide

Victims Jews, gypsies, Russians, Poles, homosexuals Jewish children in the ghetto of Warsaw, Poland Killing squads had killed 1.4 million by 1941 Those that could work went to the concentration camps Final Solution Separate strong from weak

Millions of prisoners of war worked to death or die of starvation 1942 Nazis send people to the extermination camps or gas chambers Auschwitz, the biggest camp, was designed to kill 12,000/ day Led into chambers and poisoned with cyanide gas, then sent to crematoriums to burn bodies Victims Jews, gypsies, Russians, Poles,

homosexuals Claimed 6 million Jews Work will make you free. at the entrance of Auschwitz Jewish Resistance Warsaw ghetto uprising in April 1943 Most lost lives Approx. 60,000 revolt 1943 at Treblinka, small group revolted

Broke into armory, stole guns, attack guards and set fire to gas chambers Most fighters died Life During Wartime No safe home front because of widespread bombing of civilians Civilian deaths tolls exceeded military casualties Occupation Japans conquered territories

They would install puppet-governments Ex. Manchukuo, Japanese-controlled China Some required direct control Ex. Indochina, Dutch East Indies, Hong Kong etc. Hitlers racist ideology determined how administered N. Europe had civilian govt Vichy govt w/ collaborators E. Europe military took over govt-harsh occupation Exploitation Japan and Germany exploited labor and resources

Slave labor w/ POWs and local populations Germany Poland, Soviet Union, France, Balkan forced into labor camps Japan China and Korea Shaved Jewish women selected for labor. Collaboration

Emblem for the multi-ethnic and multinational military force of the Third Reich. In Japanese-occupied Asia, not too different from colonial administration Many did it to gain power Anti-communism led some in W. Europe to join Nazi SS troops Resistance

Sabotage Armed assaults Assassination Several attempt to Hitler Operation Valkyrie By a group of officers and civilians on July 20, 1944 Condemned men executed by firing squad Hitlers conference room after the explosion. Atrocities

Japan and Germany committed atrocities against those that rebelled Ex. Hitlers assassination attempt Men die after being suspended from meat hooks Ex. Japan Forced Chinese laborers tracked down and tortured to death Resistance movements grew despite atrocities Women in War

Women joined from Great Britain and US armed forces, but not for combat Chinese and Soviet women took up arms Females excelled at resistance work b/c less suspect Jewish women suffered as much as men or boys Womens Roles Gained independence

and confidence as they took jobs or head the household Will be temporary Expected to return home and assume traditional roles as wives and mothers Comfort Women Japanese army forcibly recruited 300,000 women to serve in military brothels

Presented as a gift from the emperor 80% came from Korea Many massacred at end of war to cover up operation Women that survived suffer deep shame Recruitment advertisement for comfort women Postwar Settlements and Cold War US

Great Britain Poland Military Civilian Death Total Japan Germany China Soviet Union 0 5

10 15 20 25 War Created Refugees 8 million Germans fled to Great Britain and US territories escaping Soviet occupiers 12 million German and Soviet POWs return

home Survivors of death camps 3 million from Balkans return Cold War 1947-1991 Soviet Union and United States emerged as the 2 superpowers Political, ideological, and economic hostility b/n the 2 The conflict divided global populations United Nations Intl organization founded in 1945 to

promote world peace and cooperation Two main bodies General Assembly Representatives from all member states Security Council Five permanent members China, France, Great Britain, US, and Soviet Union Seven rotating members Operates by majority vote, but the Security Council has veto power

Creation of Israel Example of an early resolution 1947 UN resolution to divide Palestine into sovereign Jewish and Arab states Origins of Cold War Alliance of Soviet Union, Great Britain, and US held during war but with much tension

Cold War Confrontation for global influence principally b/n US and Soviet Union Lasted 5 decades and affected every corner of the world Formation of military and political alliances Creation of client states Arms race Stalin, FDR, and Churchill

Yalta and Potsdam: Wartime Conferences Yalta (Feb. 1945) Each Allied power occupied the liberated countries of Eastern Europe Agreed to try major war criminals Potsdam (July 16-Aug.2, 1945) In a Berlin suburb and last wartime summit Stalins plans prevailed Poland and eastern Europe occupied by Soviets Britain and France try to convince Soviets to allow democracy in Poland

Install communist government in Poland and eastern Europe Truman Doctrine 1947 US would support free peoples resisting subjugation $ or aid to those resisting communism U.S. perception of a world divided between free (democratic) and enslaved people (communist)

Committed to an interventionist foreign policy dedicated to the containment of communism Containment Foreign policy adopted by President Truman Directed at blocking Soviet influence and stopping the expansion of communism At the present moment in world history every nation must chose between alternative

ways of life. I believe that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Truman to US Congress 1947 Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an ironcurtain has descended across the continentI am convinced there is nothing they (the communists) so much admire as strength, and there is nothing for

which they have less respect than weakness, especially military weakness. The Marshall Plan US govt plan to rebuild European economies through cooperation and capitalism Provided $13 billion to reconstruct Europe Soviet Plan Invited to participate, but countered w/ own plan COMECON: Council for Mutual Economic

Assistance Gave both superpowers lucrative markets or resources NATO NATO flag 1949, the US established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Regional military alliance against Soviet aggression

Intent was to maintain peace in postwar Europe Had a more structured military focus after Soviets detonation of 1st atomic bomb and Korean War Original members Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, US History of NATO Warsaw Pact

Soviet countermeasure to NATO Formed in 1955 Made up of eastern and central communist European nations Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania Warsaw Pact Conference, May 1955

A Divided Germany Fault lines of Cold War most visible in Germany Reflect growing divisions b/n Soviet Union and United States Germany East Germany=Soviets West Germany= Allies Berlin Divided among all 4 powers Churchill phrase iron curtain came to represent Europes division b/n a mostly democratic Western Europe and a

Communist East Europe Occupied Berlin Berlin Blockade and Airlift 1st test of Cold War Soviets blockade all road, rail, and water links between Berlin and West Germany 11 months, British and US aircrews flew round-the-clock missions to supply W.Berlin with the necessities of life

Soviets call off blockade in May 1949 Occupied Germany 1945-1949 Berlin Wall Barbed wire and a concrete wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin symbolized the cold war division of Europe.

By 1961, communist E. Germany see stead drain of refugees leave to W. Germany 3.5 million E. Germans Watchtowers, searchlights, antipersonnel mines, and border guards ordered to shoot to kill Accomplished its purpose, but at cost of shaming regime and legitimacy

Globalization of Cold War Peoples Republic of China 1920s two groups had arisen to reassert Chinese control Nationalists and Communists After WWII and Japanese defeat, Chinese Communist Party defeats Nationalist Establish the Peoples Republic of China on October 1, 1949

Chinese and Soviets partnered in 1950s Beijing recognizes Moscow as undisputed authority in world communism in exchange for Russian military equipment and economic aid Mao Zedong proclaims the Peoples Republic of China Confrontation in Korea Summer of 1950 Korea partitioned off at the 38th parallel w/

northern zone-Soviet and southern-US after WWII June 25, 1950 northern Korea, wanted to unify Korea by force, went into S.Korea and take Seoul W/ UN mandate, US military went in to push N. Korea back to 38 th parallel War settled into a stalemate 3 million dead, mostly Korean civilians Both sides agree to cease-fire in July 1953 Domino Theory Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhowers

new US strategy Rationalized worldwide US intervention on the assumption that if one country became communist, neighboring ones would collapse to communism US applies this to Central, South America, Africa, and Asia Cracks in Soviet-Chinese Alliance Long live the Sino-Soviet Pact

Lasts until 1964 By 1964, rift b/n both became public Both compete for influence in Africa and Asia China also had successfully conducted nuclear tests which enhanced their prestige Unintended consequence; countries gain more independent course by playing capitalist against communists

Nuclear Arms Race The Cold War The visceral beauty of nuclear explosions, such as this one in the Marshall Islands in 1954, masked the terror and the tensions that beset the Soviet Union, the United States, and the rest of

the world during the cold war. Cuba: Nuclear Flashpoint 1959 revolutionary movement headed by Fidel Castro overthrew the autocratic Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar They accepted a Soviet offer of massive economic aid I have been a Marxist-Leninist all along, and will remain until I die. Castro, Dec. 1961, declares support for Soviets foreign policy

This propaganda poster celebrated the leadership of Fidel Castro during his rise to revolutionary power in Cuba Bay of Pigs Invasion April 1961, the invasion of Cuba to overthrow Castro and his supporters Invasion force of 1500 anti-Castro Cubans trained, armed, and transported

by CIA Invasion force failed to incite internal uprising American air support failed to appear W/in 3 days, Castros military killed or captured all Hurt US prestige Reason Cuba accepts Soviet aid: nuclear missiles as a deterrent Cuban Missile Crisis Oct. 26, 1962, US learns that Soviet technicians were assembling launch

sites for medium-range nuclear missiles in Cuba Pres. JFK issues ultimatum to w/draw all missiles from Cuba Imposed an air and naval quarantine on nation After 2 weeks, Soviets yielded to US demands Kennedy agrees to refrain from attempting to overthrow Castro World waited for the apocalypse Dissent in Soviet Union

De-Stalinization 1956-1964 Nikita Kruschevs policy End the rule of terror and partial liberalization of Soviet society Govt removed portraits of Stalin, renamed institutions and local ties w/ his name, and commissioned historians to rewrite textbooks to deflate Stalins reputation Brought thaw in govt control Release millions of political prisoners Soviet Intervention

Budapest, Hungary 1956 when Soviet tanks enter to crush uprising New political climate led to communist leaders in Eastern Europe to seek a degree of independence Ex. Hungary 1956 Ex. Prague Springsocialism w/ human face

Detente Late 1960s, leaders of Soviet Union and US agreed to policy, or reduction in hostility, trying to cool arms race and slow competition in developing countries Pres. Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev were 1st to test detente

The End of the Cold War Mr. Gorbachev! Tear down this wall B/n 1989-1991, the Soviet system in Europe collapsed Pres. Ronald Reagan reinvigorated cold war animosities, evil empire Reagan advocated enormous military spending His rhetoric and budgets challenged dtente and

Soviets ability to match US spending Mikhail Gorbachev (1931 Economic weakness of communist regimes in eastern, central Europe and Soviet Union that they needed reforms 1985 Gorbachev came to power tried reforms to address economic deterioration Perestroika policy to restructure and decentralize the economy Glasnost the policy of opening of Soviet society to public criticism and admission of mistakes

Led to ethnic and nationalist sentiments b/c only of 285 million Soviet citizens were Russian Revolutions in Eastern and Central Europe Gorbachev visits Berlin in 1989 and announces that each country would be responsible for its own destiny Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary were the first Czechoslovakia Velvet Revolution b/c done w/ little violence

Czech Republic and Slovakia Romania- violent b/c Nicolae Ceausescu refused to reform 1989 uprising ended w/ him and his wife dead Fall of Berlin Wall East Germans fled by 1,000s through openings East German regime decided to open the Berlin Wall to intra-German traffic

on November 9, 1989 1,000s of East and West Berliners tore down wall 1990 the 2 Germanies formed a united nation Tearing down the Wall Collapse of Soviet Union Pressures on Soviet Union 1979 Unsuccessful invasion of Afghanistan Pull out troops in 1989 Downward slide of industrial and agricultural

production Skyrocketing inflation Soviet satellites declare independence in 1991 Boris Yeltsin led drive for independence August 1991, Yeltsin dismantles Communist Party and pushed reforms for market-oriented economy Dec. 25, 1991, Soviet flag fluttered for last time- by end of year USSR ceases to exist Taking down the face of Lenin

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