Neutrality & Road to World War II Mr. Ermer U.S. History Miami Beach Senior High SS.912.A.5.5, SS.912.A.6.1, SS.912.A.6.2 New Era Diplomacy
Congress rejects Treaty of Versailles, League of Nations Pact Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes negotiates separate treaties Contrary to claims of isolationism, U.S. plays active role in global politics throughout 1920s Washington Naval Conference of 1921 U.S., Britain, France, Italy, Japan agree to limit naval tonnage
Nine-Power Pact to continue Open Door Policy in China Four-Power Pact b/w U.S., Britain, France, Japan to respect Pacific lands Kellogg-Briand Pact 0f 1928 A multilateral pact aiming to outlaw war The Dawes Plan The United States loans money to Germany so they can pay their
reparations to former Allied Powers in return for lower payments Fordney-McCumber Act of 1922 raises tariffs, hurts Europe Growing Latin American indebtedness breeds resentment of Yankee Imperialism World Crisis & Diplomacy Global Great Depression triggers growing nationalism
Many leaders around the world being replaced by angry people Roosevelt rejects many of Hoovers foreign policies Moves to strengthen economic ties with Europe Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act Most competitive non-American import goods still limited Good Neighbor Policy
Increased imports from and exports to Latin America Rejection of American intervention in Latin America Inter-American Conference of 1933 held in Montevideo 1930s Americans grow increasingly isolationist U.S. signs on to World Court, mostly symbolic Neutrality Act of 1935
Prohibits American intervention in Italys invasion of Ethiopia Followed by the neutrality acts of 1936 & 1937 Americans could travel on foreign ships only at own risk Warring nations could only buy non-military goods from U.S. in cash and carry them away on own shipscash and carry policy Fascism In Europe Fascism: Political system run by a dictator, extremely
nationalistic, intolerant, and highly ordered Anti-Communist, pro-empire Italy (1922): Benito Mussolini brings Fascism Becomes Il Duce or Leader of ItalyPremier Germany (1933): Hitler elected German Chancellor
Upset about terms of WWIs Treaty of Versailles Tries to start revolution in 1923, arrested Writes book in jail: Mein Kampf (My Struggles) Becomes leader of Nazi party Blames Jews and other minorities for Germanys problems Wants to establish a new German empire (Third Reich)
Spanish Civil War Hitler and Mussolini support Fascist party of Francisco Franco Britain, France, & U.S. dont help republican side Authoritarianism In Eurasia Russia renamed Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, or USSR, in 1922Communist government Joseph Stalin becomes Soviet premier in 1924 Five Year Plan to build up economy Collectivization Sets eyes on conquest of eastern Europe
Japan needs more natural resources to help economy Emperor Hirohitos power=absolute (thought a god) Prime Minister Tojo is military dictator for emperor
Germany Builds Toward War 1935: Hitler builds new air force, military draft European leaders, afraid of another war, want to make deal Assumed Germany just wanted union and peace
1938: Hitler forces the peaceful union of Germany and Austria (the Anschluss) The Munich Conference Hitler wants the Sudentenland, part of Czechoslovakia France and Britain agree, start appeasement policy 1939: Germany attacks, splits land b/w Czechs & Slovaks
Hitler now wanted city of Danzig from Poland Britain and France have Polands back September 1939, Germany invades Poland Germany At War Hitler does not want a two-front war like World War I Sends ministers to Russia to negotiate deal with Stalin Stalin sees chance to turn capitalists against each other
August 23, 1939: Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact After Hitler invades Poland, Britain & France declare war One month later, Poland falls to the Nazis British and French wait for Nazis in Belgium Hitler surrounds Belgium, French surrender British and French troops escape to England through
Dunkirk, French Gen. Charles de Gaulle flees to Algiers Hitler orders his Luftwaffe (air force) to bomb London American Neutrality Americans disillusioned by failure of World War I
Rise of dictators Non-payment of debts during Great Depression Nye Committee/Backlash against arms industry Support of isolationism Neutrality Act of 1935: illegal to sell arms abroad
Spanish Civil War erupts Germany, Italy, & Japan form Axis Powers Neutrality Act of 1937: All nonmilitary goods bought by warring nations on a cash & carry basis
Still Neutral? FDR supports internationalism Supplies China with weapons against Japan Neutrality Act of 1939: weapons sales OK, cash & carry FDR lends British old navy ships in exchange for
British bases Lend-Lease Act: lend the British arms to fight war 1941: Nazis invade USSR, break non- aggression pact FDR est. Hemispheric Defense Zone
USA protects ships in neutral western Atlantic August 1941: The Atlantic Charter Agreement for after the war to pursue democratic Japan & Pearl Harbor FDR restricts sale of strategic materials to
Japan Lend-lease to China Japan, in need of resources, attacks British and Dutch colonies in eastern, southern Pacific Japan attacks U.S. Philippines
December 7, 1941: Japan surprise attacks the American Pacific naval fleet at Pearl Harbor The United States declares war on Japan Germany and Italy declare war on U.S.A.
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