World War II Outcome: The European Theater The European Theater 1. Aggression in Europe a. b. c.
Italy invaded Ethiopia and took control in 1935 Spains Civil War was won by the fascists in 1936 Germany i. ii.
1936: Hitler had rearmed and sent troops to the Rhineland 1938: Hitler annexed Austria & demanded the Sudetenland (W. Czech) The European Theater iii. 1938: Munich Conference (Germany, Italy,
Britain, & France) 1. Goal: To stop further German aggression in Europe 2. Policy: Appeasement March 1939: Germany took rest of Czechoslovakia (appeasement failed) France & Britain pledged war if aggression
continued 1939: Hitler & Stalin signed a Non3. iv. v. vi. Result: The Munich Pact gave Hitler the Sudetenland if he promised to end territorial demands
The European Theater d. United States reaction to foreign aggression i. 1935: passed Neutrality Act no arms to warring nations ii. 1939: Cash-n-Carry policy (purpose to
aid the Allies) The European Theater 2. War in Europe (Early Period) a. Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invaded Poland with blitzkrieg attack (WWII begins) i.
ii. France & Great Britain declare war the next day The Holocaust intensifies The European Theater b. Phony War Period (Sitzkrieg) ---> Sept 1939-April 1940
c. April, 1940: Germany resumed Blitzkrieg attacks i. ii. Neutral nations fell quickly ---> Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway France fell to Hitler in late June 1940
The European Theater d. Summer/Fall, 1940: Battle of Britain (German Luftwaffe vs. Royal Air Force RAF) e. June, 1941: Hitler double crossed Stalin and invaded Russia through Poland i. Big Mistake! Stalin used Scorched Earth military tactic ii.
Harsh winter and lack of useable supplies resulted in over 1 million Nazi loses The European Theater 3. Diplomacy was Failing a. Appeasement was ineffective when dealing with Hitler
b. Sept 1940: Germany, Italy, and Japan signed the Tripartite Pact (Axis Powers) c. U.S. Neutrality? Biased? i. 1940: WWI destroyers given for bases deal with Great Britain ii. 1941: Lend-Lease Act --> U.S. became the Arsenal of Democracy iii. 1941: FDR and W. Churchill (Britain) agreed to the Atlantic Charter
The European Theater 4.Last Events to U.S. Entry a.1941: U.S. attempted to stop Japans invasion of China (in Civil War) i. Sent ultimatum (warning) ii. Issued a scrap metal and oil embargo
The European Theater b.By Aug. 1941: Indo-China fell to Japan i. U.S. began a full trade embargo against Japan ii. Japan responded by: 1. Sending a negotiator to Washington D.C.
2. Preparing for an attack on the U.S. (decoded message) The European Theater 5.December 7th, 1941: Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor a. U.S. Pacific Fleet was based at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii b. Attack was meant to cripple U.S. fleet so couldnt interfere with Japan
c. Six aircraft carriers and 353 Japanese planes attacked in two waves d. 2,403 died (1,177 killed on the U.S.S. Arizona) e. U.S. declared war on Japan the next day Date that will live in Infamy f. Germany & Italy declared war on the U.S. on Dec 8, 1941 (Tripartite Pact) g. The U.S. was officially in the war! (Isolationism was over)
U.S.S. Arizona The European Theater 6. Key Nations at War 1. Allies: Great Britain, France, Soviet Union, United States 2. Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan The European Theater
7. European Theater a. Name given to the fighting that took place in Europe b. 1942: Britain stood alone against Axis c. Gen. Dwight Eisenhower = Supreme Allied Commander of the European Theater d. Allies first invaded through Sicily and up
into Italy e. Mussolini was overthrown and killed f. The European Theater Eastern Front: Stalingrad i. The Nazis were fighting the Russians in Stalingrad (Aug
1942-Feb 1943) ii. One of the bloodiest battles in the history of warfare iii. Nazis are defeated; turning point of the war for the Allies D-Day You are about to embark upon a great crusade,
toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. DoEisenhower you realize that by the time you wake up in the
morning 20,000 men may have been killed. -Churchill to his wife The European Theater g. Western Front: D-Day i. General Eisenhower planned D-Day for June
6, 1944 ii. Allied invasion across English Channel into Normandy, France iii.Largest military invasion in history iv. Allies success allowed them to push further into France ****156,000 American, British, and Canadian forces landed on 5 beaches The D in D-Day actually only stood
for Day and was simply used to preserve secrecy D-Day Map The European Theater h.Battle of the Bulge i. Hitlers last major offensive ii. Allies were pushing from the West
(from France), South through Italy, and from the East (Soviets) iii.Germany was surrounded The European Theater 8. German Surrender a.Hitler committed suicide before he could be captured
b. Germany officially surrendered on May 7, 1945; following day is known as VE Day c. Now the Allies had to figure out how to defeat Japan
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