What is Research

What is Research

What is Research ? The best way to learn economics is not to hear about it, or read about it, but to do it. Doing economics means performing economic research. Steven A. Greenlaw, Doing Economics: A Guide to Understand and Carrying Out Economic Research, p. 1. What is Research ? Research is the search for or creation of (valid) knowledge.

Knowledge is what is believed to be true about something, what is believed to be a correct understanding of something. Facts are just data. Knowledge is an experts best interpretation of facts. What is Research ? Facts are discovered; knowledge, as an interpretation, is created.

Ethridge (1995) defines research as the systematic approach to obtaining new and reliable knowledge (p. 16). Ethridge (1995) notes that critical thinking is an essential element for research. Critical Thinking Missimer (1995) defines critical thinking as the evaluation of competing arguments on

the basis of their evidence. Bean (1995), a nationally known scholar of critical thinking, points out that most undergraduates do not really understand how to write a discipline-specific research paper. Critical Thinking Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. But much of our thinking, left to itself, is biased, distorted, partial, uninformed or down-right

prejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and that of what we produce, make, or build depends precisely on the quality of our thought. Shoddy thinking is costly, both in money and in quality of life. Excellence in thought, however, must be systematically cultivated. Source: The Foundation for Critical Thinking Critical Thinking A Definition: Critical thinking is the art of analyzing and

evaluating thinking with a view to improving it. Source: The Foundation for Critical Thinking Requirements for Critical Thinking

Raise vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and precisely; Gather and assess relevant information, using abstract ideas to interpret it effectively; Come to well-reasoned conclusions, testing them against relevant criteria and standards; Think open-mindedly within alternative systems of thought, recognizing and assessing, as need be, their assumptions, implications, and practical consequences; and Communicate effectively with others in figuring out solutions

to complex problems. Critical Thinking Critical thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored, and selfcorrective thinking. It requires rigorous standards of excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome our native egocentrism and sociocentrism. Source: The Foundation for Critical Thinking

Types of Research Ethridg (1995) distinguishes between two types of research: Discovery: formulating, finding, and creating new knowledge or information; and Confirmation: discerning the validity or reliability of knowledge or information.

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