are What is Genetics and Heredity? Genetics Genetics is the study of heredity or how traits are passed from an organism to its offspring. Gregor Mendel is the Father of Genetics.
Born 1822 Died 1884 Mendels Discoveries Mendel experimented with pea plants from 1856-1863.
He identified different traits such as height and color. He cross pollinated plants with opposite traits. As a result he determined that each plant had 2 elements, one from each parent. Discoveries Continued We now call these elements gene. First Principle of Genetics Each trait is decided by no less than one pair of genes.
Discoveries Continued Second Principle of GeneticsEach trait has its own genes and one trait does not influence another trait. Words We Need to Know
AlleleEach form of a gene that is possible, for example tall and short, green and yellow Dominant GenesHide recessive genes, abbreviated using a capital letter, for example T for tall Recessive GenesCan be hidden or masked by dominant genes, abbreviated using a lower case letter, for example t for short.
PhenotypePhysical Appearance: Tall or short, green or yellow GenotypeCombination of genes that describes a trait, TT, Tt, or tt More Words Purebred or homozygous Organisms genes are both the same (TT, tt) Hybrid or heterozygous Organisms genes consist of
two different genes (Tt) Incomplete dominance Neither gene is dominant or recessive example: pink white + red = More Words Sex-Linked TraitsTraits carried on the sex chromosomes (hemophilia or color-blindness) MutationA change in a gene or chromosome ProbabilityThe possibility or
likelihood that a particular event will take place Punnett SquareTool used to show possible combinations of genes What Would Happen If.. We crossed a pure-bred tall pea plant with a purebred short pea plant? T T t t
We crossed a pure-bred tall pea plant with a hybrid tall pea plant? T T t T What Would Happen If.. We crossed a hybrid tall pea plant with a pure-bred short pea plant?
We crossed 2 hybrid tall pea plants? T t t t T T t t Is Genetics the only
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