Welcome to the Cloud - Pearson Education

Welcome to the Cloud - Pearson Education

Welcome to the Cloud ko and Panko th Edition ness Data Networks and Security, 9th Pearson Pearson Chapter 1 This Chapter Today, we are surrounded by networks.

This book will help you learn the skills you will need to participate in this networking revolution. This chapter introduces basic network concepts and issues you will use throughout the book. 2013 Pearson 2

Special Notices Difficult Material Central Concept (CEPT) Take it slowly, step by step. This will require some extra work. This is a central concept (CEPT) you need to understand really well.

2013 Pearson 3 2013 Pearson 4 Jason Akana Works at the First Bank of Paradise (FBP) in Hawai`i

Develops new media marketing campaigns using Facebook, YouTube, email lists, and the banks website 2013 Pearson 5 1.1: AlohaSmart Credit Card Current project is the AlohaSmart credit card smartcard Smartcards have chips as well as mag stripes 2013 Pearson

6 Jason Akana In the morning, opens his tablet to check e-mail containing remarks about his PowerPoint marketing plan Turns on his desktop computer and reworks the PowerPoint presentation

Automatically uploaded to the cloud with BlueSynch Later available to his work notebook and to meeting participants 2013 Pearson 7 1.2: Cloud File Synch/Distribution The cloud imagery indicates that the user does not have to understand how systems inside the cloud operate.

2013 Pearson 8 Jason Akana PowerPoint is installed on his desktop computer at home. For his work notebook computer and on his tablet, PowerPoint is stored in the cloud. He downloads it when he needs it.

Pays for it by the month, as a service. It is called software as a service (SaaS). 2013 Pearson 9 1.3: Software in the Cloud 2013 Pearson 10 Claire Lorek

On the FBP networking staff Manages the headquarters building wireless LANs Walks around doing readings with her sniffer program Learns information about access points, their signal power, and their security

2013 Pearson 11 1.4: Wireless Sniffer Radar Map 2013 Pearson 12 1.5: Wireless Sniffer Details Table SSID

Signal FBP A1-B2-C3-D4E5-F6 -85 dBm FBP BB-D5-33-D46B-DD -60 dBm FBP 19-FF-AE-D4EC-63 -60 dBm Mode

802.11g 802.11n 802.11n Channel 11 48 44 AES-CCMP

AES-CCMP WPA2/PEAP WPA2/PEAP Cisco Cisco BSSID Encryption AES-CCMP Authenticatio WPA2/PEAP

n Vendor Cisco 2013 Pearson 13 Claire Lorek Currently, must walk around at least daily. Even then, cannot find intermittent problems.

FBP is installing a centralized wireless management system. Will be able to manage all access points centrally. She can constantly monitor the network for problems. The network will alert her to problems. The system can even make adjustments automatically. 2013 Pearson 14 John Lee

In charge of wireless security at FBP BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) Problem Number of smartphones and tablets is exploding Owned by the employees but used partially for business purposes Great diversity in smartphone and tablet operating systems Device security is improving but limited 2013 Pearsonl 15

John Lee Claire Lorek found a rogue access point in one of her walkarounds. She and John Lee visited Albert Gomes who installed the unauthorized access point. Albert thought that the access point was

secure in stealth mode. However, Claires and hackers software could find it. 2013 Pearson 16 John and Claire Rather than punish Albert Gomes, they worked to help him.

His department did need more capacity. Claire would install another access point, one with strong security. John and Claire had developed an ally. 2013 Pearson

17 2013 Pearson 18 1.6: Basic Network Terminology Working Definition 2013 Pearson 19 1.6: Basic Network Terminology

2013 Pearson 20 1.6: Basic Network Terminology 2013 Pearson 21 1.6: Basic Network Terminology 2013 Pearson

22 1.7: Client/Server Processing The client and the server share processing work. 2013 Pearson 23 1.8: Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Processing P2P Processing can be done without a network (as shown) or with a network.

No servers are needed. 2013 Pearson 24 1.9: Transmission Speed Transmission Speed Measurements Bits per second (bps) Usually not bytes per second (Bps) Metric Suffixes Kilobits per second kbps (lowercase k) 1,000 bits per second

(not 1,024) Megabits per second Mbps 1,000 kbps Gigabits per second Gbps 1,000 Mbps

Terabits per second Tbps 1,000 Gbps 2013 Pearson 25 1.10: Download Times for Applications File Downloads 100 1

kbps Mbps E-mail message (250 words) .15 s Photograph (5 MB) 1 Hr HTDV Video (10 Mbps) Backup Synch (10 GB) 2013 Pearson

5 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps 0s 0s

0s 0s 0s 8m 1m 10 s 5s 1s

0.1 s 4d 10 h 2h 1h 6m 36 s 12 d

28 h 6h 3h 17 m 2m 26 1.10: Download Times for Applications Live or Streaming Media

MP3 Song (10 kbps) Standard Quality TV (2 Mbps) HDTV (10 Mbps) Three HDTV Channels 2013 Pearson 100 1 kbps Mbps OK

OK 5 Mbps 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps OK

OK OK OK OK OK OK OK OK

OK OK OK OK 27 2013 Pearson 28 1.11: Data Burstiness

2013 Pearson 29 1.11: Data Burstiness 2013 Pearson 30 1.12: Packet Switching and Multiplexing 2013 Pearson 31

1.12: Packet Switching and Multiplexing 2013 Pearson 32 1.13: Sequential Switching Decisions 2013 Pearson 33 1.13: Sequential Switching Decisions 2013 Pearson

34 1.13: Sequential Switching Decisions 2013 Pearson 35 1.14: Address-Based Switch Forwarding Decision 2013 Pearson 36 Recap

Each switch along the way forwards the packet out a port to another switch (or to the destination host). Individual packet switches have no knowledge of the entire path taken by the packet. We will see how this works in detail in later chapters.

2013 Pearson 37 1.15: Physical and Data Links 2013 Pearson 38 1.15: Physical and Data Links 2013 Pearson 39

The ARPANET Forerunner of the Internet Funded by Larry Roberts at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) Now the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) To explore packet switching

To give researchers access to ARPA-funded software on host computers in distant cities First four nodes began operation in 1969 2013 Pearson 40 1.16: The ARPANET

2013 Pearson 41 1.16: The ARPANET 2013 Pearson 42 2013 Pearson 43 Birth of the Internet

Bob Kahn at DARPA needed a way for researchers on one network to use resources on another network. Packets would have to travel across multiple networks. Kahn and Vint Cerf came up with the idea of connecting multiple networks by devices called routers. The original name was gateways.

Generically, networks of networks are internets. Kahn created the global Internet (Capital I). 2013 Pearson 44 1.17: Internet 2013 Pearson

45 Terminology Capitalization of internet With an uppercase I, Internet means the global Internet we use every day. With a lowercase i, internet means any internet or the internet layer. 2013 Pearson 46 1.18: Two Layers of

Networking Basically, Kahn and Cerf created a second layer of networking on top of single networks. This required the creation of a parallel set of concepts for single networks and internets. Single networks and internets use similar concepts but give these concepts different names.

It is important for you to get this clear in your head. 2013 Pearson 47 1.18: Two Layers of Networking Component Generic Single

Terminology Networks Addresses Packets are called Packet switches are called End-to-end routes are called 2013 Pearson Internets Vary by network

technology 32-bit IPv4 Addresses and 128-bit IPv6 Addresses Packets Frames Packets Switches

Switches Routers Data links Routes 48 1.18: Two Layers of Networking Component Generic Single

Terminology Networks Addresses Packets are called Packet switches are called End-to-end routes are called 2013 Pearson Internets Vary by network

technology 32-bit IPv4 Addresses and 128-bit IPv6 Addresses Packets Frames Packets Switches

Switches Routers Data links Routes 49 1.19: Packets and Frames 2013 Pearson 50

1.19: Packets and Frames 2013 Pearson 51 1.19: Packets and Frames 2013 Pearson 52 2013 Pearson 53

Network layers Networks can be described at several layers of detail. Each layer provides services to the layer above it. The road provides service to the car tires. The car tires provide service to the car. The car provides service to the driver. A commercial driver provides service to the goods being delivered.

2013 Pearson 54 1.20: Physical Links and Data Links 2. The data link is the packets path through the network In this case: X-A-B-D-F-Y 1. Physical links are connections between

adjacent pairs of devices 2013 Pearson 55 1.20: Physical Links and Data Links How many data links does the packet pass through? How many physical links does the packet pass through? Name them. 2013 Pearson 56

Network Working Group Formed by graduate students to create standards for the ARPANET. Called their standards Requests for Comment (RFCs). Did not feel that they had the authority to create standards, so they used the weaker term RFC.

The NWG evolved into todays standards body for the Internet, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Internet standards today are still called RFCs. 2013 Pearson 57 Two Layers of Networking Basically, Kahn and Cerf created a second

layer of networking on top of single networks. This required the creation of a parallel set of concepts for single networks and internets. Single networks and internets use similar concepts but give these concepts different names. It is important for you to get this clear in your

head. 2013 Pearson 58 1.20: Physical Links, Data Links, and Routes Dashed line shows the path of a packet 2013 Pearson 59

1.20: Physical Links, Data Links, and Routes Physical links connect adjacent devices, as noted earlier. How many physical links are there between the two hosts? 2013 Pearson 60 1.20: Physical Links, Data Links, and Routes

A data link is the path of a frame through a single network, as noted earlier. There is one data link per network. How many data links are in the figure? 2013 Pearson 61 1.20: Physical Links, Data Links, and Routes A route is a packets path through an internet.

Added for internets. How many routes are there in the figure? 2013 Pearson 62 1.20: Physical Links, Data Links, and Routes Host P transmits a packet to Host Q. There are seven networks between the hosts.

1. How many packets will there be along the way? 2. How many frames will there be along the way? 3. How many routes will there be along the way? 4. How many data links will there be along the way?

2013 Pearson 63 1.21: Internet and Transport Standards 2013 Pearson 64 1.21: Internet and Transport Standards 2013 Pearson 65

1.22: Networking Layers Laye r 5 4 3 2 1 2013 Pearson Name Broad

Purpose Application Transport Internet Data Link Physical Singlenetwork transmission (switched or wireless) Specific Purpose

Connection across a single network, Frame formats and switch operation Physical connections between adjacent devices 66 1.22: Networking Layers Laye Name Broad r Purpose 5 Application

4 Transport 3 2 Internet Data Link 2013 Pearson Internet Transmission

Specific Purpose Application message fragmentation, error correction, congestion reduction, etc. Transmission of packet across an internet, Packet formats, router operation 67 1.22: Networking Layers Numb

er 5 Name 4 Transport 3 Internet 2 Data Link

1 Physical 2013 Pearson Broad Specific Purpose Purpose Application Communication Same between applications 68

2013 Pearson 69 1.24: Core TCP/IP Standards IP Internet layer protocol Unreliable best-effort internet layer operation 2013 Pearson 70

1.24: Core TCP/IP Standards TCP Transport layer protocol TCP messages are called segments Provides transport layer functionality to fix problems Error correction, and so on UDP The other transport layer protocol Messages are called datagrams Unreliable, so used when reliability is not desired

2013 Pearson 71 1.23: Core TCP/IP Standards Layer Transport Layer Internet Layer 2013 Pearson Standard(s) Transmission User Datagram

Control Protocol Protocol (UDP) (TCP) No Fragmentation Fragmentation No Error Correction Error Correction No Congestion Congestion control Control Internet Protocol (IP) IPv4 and IPv6 72 The Internet Evolves

1977 First experimental connection of three networks (Two wireless and the ARPANET) 1980s Internet opened to outside network for e-mail exchanges 2013 Pearson 73

The Internet Evolves TCP/IP standards evolved in the 1980s Hosts could run either TCP/IP or NCP standards. 1983 All hosts were required to run TCP/IP. NSFNET In the 1980s, the NSFNET funded by NSF was the core of the Internet.

NSF had an Acceptable Use Policy barring commercial activity such as e-commerce. 2013 Pearson 74 The Internet Evolves 1995 NSFNET replaced by commercial ISPs. E-commerce was no longer forbidden. The e-commerce revolution began. The World Wide Web became popular just before that.

2013 Pearson 75 1.24: The Internet Today To use the Internet, you need an Internet service provider and an access line to your ISP. Your ISP gives you access and carries your packets.

Organizations also need ISPs. 2013 Pearson 76 1.24: The Commercial Internet ISPs collectively comprise the Internet backbone. They interconnect at Network Access Points (NAPs) 77 to exchange packets. 2013 Pearson 1.24: The Commercial Internet

Trace the path packets take from the User PC to the Webserver. 2013 Pearson 78 Internet Supervisory Protocols IP, TCP, and UDP are standards for delivery packets. TCP/IP also has supervisory protocols: To handle things beyond packet delivery.

Managing IP addresses. Error handling, and so on. We will look at two supervisory protocols in this chapter. We will look at many more in Chapter 10. 2013 Pearson 79 1.25: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 2013 Pearson 80

1.25: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 2013 Pearson 81 1.25: Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 2013 Pearson 82 1.26: Domain Name System (DNS)

2013 Pearson 83 1.26: Domain Name System (DNS) 2013 Pearson 84 1.26: Domain Name System (DNS) 2013 Pearson 85

1.26: Domain Name System (DNS) 2013 Pearson 86 2013 Pearson 87 1.27: Home Network 2013 Pearson 88

1.28: Four-Pair Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) 2013 Pearson 89 1.27: Home Network 2013 Pearson 90 1.29: DHCP in a Small Home Network

The IP gives the home one IP address. The home network has multiple devices that need IP addresses. 2013 Pearson 91 1.29: DHCP in a Small Home Network The access router DHCP circuit gives private IP addresses to other devices. 2013 Pearson 92

1.30: Network Address Translation (NAT) NAT allows multiple internal hosts to share a single external IP address. External sniffers cannot learn internal addresses. 2013 Pearson 93 2013 Pearson 94 This Chapter

This is the first of four introductory chapters. The others deal with standards, security, and network and security management. Chapter 1 introduces basic network concepts and issues. Presented historically because some aspects of networking only make sense if you understand the development of internetworking. Specifically, single-network versus internet concepts and terminology (two of everything).

2013 Pearson 95 The Next Chapter Chapter 2 looks at standards in more depth. It will look at major characteristics of standards, such as the syntax of messages. It will focus on the data link, internet, transport, and application layers, which work by sending structured messages.

2013 Pearson 96 2013 2013 Pearson Pearson

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