Ways of the World

Ways of the World

Robert W. Strayer Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources Third Edition

CHAPTER 15 Cultural Transformations: Religion and Science 14501750

Copyright 2016 by Bedford/St. Martins Distributed by Bedford/St. Martin's/Macmillan Higher Education strictly for use with its products; Not for redistribution. I. The Globalization of Christianity A. Western Christendom Fragmented: The

Protestant Reformation 1. Protestant Reformation (1517): Martin Luther 2. Massive schism in Catholic Christendom 3. Women and Protestantism

I. The Globalization of Christianity A. Western Christendom Fragmented: The Protestant Reformation 4. Printing press helped Reformation thought spread

5. Religious differences further split fractured political system 6. Catholic Counter-Reformation 7. Encouraged skepticism of authority and tradition

I. The Globalization of Christianity B. Christianity Outward Bound 1. Motivated and Benefited from European expansion

2. Imperialism made the globalization of Christianity possible I. The Globalization of Christianity C. Conversion and Adaptation in Spanish

America 1. Native Americans receptive to conquering ` religion 2. Europeans claimed exclusive religious truth 3. Blending of two religious traditions common

I. The Globalization of Christianity D. An Asian Comparison: China and the Jesuits 1. Christianity reached China in Ming and Qing dynasties

2. No mass conversion in China 3. Missionaries offered little for Chinese II. Persistence and Change in AfroAsian Cultural Traditions A. Expansion and Renewal in the Islamic World

1. Spread of Islam depended on holy men, scholars, traders 2. Islands of Southeast Asia reveal diversity of belief and practice

3. Syncretrism of Islamization increasingly offensive to orthodox Muslims 4. Wahhabism II. Persistence and Change in AfroAsian Cultural Traditions

B. China: New Directions in an Old Tradition 1. Less dramatic religious change than in Europe 2. Ming and Qing dynasty China 3. Debate and new thinking in China

4. Lively popular culture among less well educated II. Persistence and Change in AfroAsian Cultural Traditions C. India: Bridging the Hindu/Muslim Divide

1. Mughal emperor Akbar 2. Bhakti movement 3. Growth of Sikhism III. A New Way of Thinking: The

Birth of Modern Science A. The Question of Origins: Why Europe? 1. Islamic world and China scientifically advanced 2. European conditions favorable to rise of

science 3. Education in the Islamic world 4. Europe drew on the knowledge of other cultures 5. Europe at center of new information

exchange III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science B. Science as Cultural Revolution

1. View of world before Scientific Revolution 2. Nicolaus Copernicus 3. Other scientists build on Copernicuss insights 4. Sir Isaac Newton

III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science B. Science as Cultural Revolution 5. The machine of the universe

6. Male leaders 7. Opposition of Catholic Church III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

C. Science and Enlightenment 1. Wider European audience 2. Adam Smith, 1723 1790 3. Immanuel Kant, 1724 1804: daring to know

4. Belief that knowledge could transform human society III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

C. Science and Enlightenment 5. Opposed established religion 6. Debates over role of women in society 7. Central theme: the idea of progress

III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science D. Looking Ahead: Science in the Nineteenth Century and Beyond 1. Modern science cumulative and self-critical

2. Science applied to new sorts of inquiry 3. 20th century physics III. A New Way of Thinking: The Birth of Modern Science

E. European Science beyond the West 1. Science: widely desired product of European culture 2. Chinese: selective interest in Jesuits teaching

3. Japan: European contact via trade with the Dutch 4. Ottoman Empire: ideas of practical utility

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