Warm Up

Warm Up

Warm Up What does it mean to say that water is polar? What is meant by high specific heat? Why is it important for ice to be less dense than water? Once you have completed these questions, please take out your lab to work on it for ~5 minutes Sign Up for Remind Please text 81010 or (410) 793-1318. 1A text @moloney1a 2A text @ moloney2a 4A text @moloney4a 1B text @moloney1b 3B text @moloney3b 4B text @moloney4b You will be asked for a name please type in your first and last name any time you use this in the future, what you type in now will appear as your name! You can sign up for email as well..visit

https://www.remind.com/join/moloney1a (or 2a, 4a, 1b, 3b, 4b) Solvent for Life Solution Solute solvent Aqueous solution Hydrophilic Ionic compounds dissolve in water Polar molecules (generally) are water soluble Hydrophobic Nonpolar compounds Water dissolves more than any other solvent it is called the universal solvent

Most biochemical reactions involve solutes dissolved in water. There are two important quantitative proprieties of aqueous solutions. 1. Concentration 2. pH Acids and Bases An acid is a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. Any substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is a base. Some bases reduce H+ directly by accepting hydrogen ions.

Strong acids and bases complete dissociate in water. Weak acids and bases dissociate only partially and reversibly. pH Scale Measures the degree of acidity (0 14) Most biologic fluids are in the pH range from 6 8 Each pH unit represents a tenfold difference (scale is logarithmic) A small change in pH actually indicates a substantial change in H+ and OH- concentrations. pH What do you think are factors that impact pH? How does pH impact living systems?

Scientific Method & Lab Report The steps of the scientific method are to: 1) Make an observation 2) Construct a hypothesis 3) Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment 4) Analyze your data and draw a conclusion 5) Conclusion - Report your results pH Lab Overview We will be studying how pH impacts the germination of radish seeds Seeds will be exposed to an acid, a base, and a neutral pH We will reexamine the seeds next class to see how many in each environment germinated There WILL be a write-up associated with this lab

Groups Group 4 Group 1 Matthew Carlos Elise Peter Group 2 Group 3 Brooklynn Priscila Mya Kalissa Latazha Isaiah Samuel

Group 5 Alejandro Jason Kaleigh Cora Group 6 ALexus Cody Vincent Katie Kaila Jaleel Andrew Scott Kindra

Group 7 Danielle Nathaly Jacob In order to complete the lab successfully, each group must divide the work. You will need 1 material gatherer, 2 experimenters, 1 data collector, 1 procedure scribe, and 1 project manager (complete task if someone is absent ensure work is completed in timely manner, share data with class). Group 1 Connor Miette Daniel Jazzlyn Hilton Group 4 Groups

Group 2 Group 3 Santiago Madison Megan Kaylie Christina Jhasyne John Arthur Zoe Litzy Group 5 Group 6 Gabrielle Dalton Nathan Jenna Mechie

Grey Eileen Kate Sahil Syan Javed Morgan Phoenix Jacob Larissa Joacquin McKenzie In order to complete the lab successfully, each group must divide the work. You will need 1 material gatherer, 2 experimenters, 1 data collector, 1 procedure scribe, and 1 project manager

(complete task if someone is absent ensure work is completed in timely manner, share data with class). Litzy Group 1 Abby Mikiyah Taylor Jordan Krishang Group 2 Devan Daejah Omar Adrianne Aniyah Groups

Group 3 Group 4 Lina Thomas L. Thomas M. Nysiem Cala Dalaina Isayah Nonya Taryn Group 5 Alan Emma Ahmad Courtney Danasha In order to complete the lab successfully, each group must divide the work. You will need 1 material gatherer, 2 experimenters, 1 data collector, 1 procedure

scribe, and 1 project manager (complete task if someone is absent ensure work is completed in timely manner, share data with class). Helpful Lab Hints Fold paper towel to ensure that ALL seeds remain in the paper towel. Do NOT count the drops add enough liquid to saturate the paper towel not fill the bottom with liquid. Do NOT touch the saturated paper towel!!! Make sure initials of group members, block, and type of solution are labeled on the bag! Warm Up 1. Name the Property of Water: water has oppositely charged ends = water creates a film-like force to hold light objects = takes a lot of energy to increase/decrease the temperature of water = 2. What is a control? Why is it important to have a control? 3. Why does ice float?

PASS UP WATER LAB OR LATE PH HOMEWORK pH, Acids & Bases pH Water naturally break up to H+ and OH H+ are hydrogen ions and OH- are hydroxide ions What is pH measuring? pH is a measure of hydrogen ions H+ in a solution If the hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxide ions (OH-) do not balanced out, an acid or a base is formed. More H+ = acid ; More OH- = base The acidity and alkalinity of a solution is rated on the pH scale. Acids Acids are compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolve in water.

When an acid is added to water, the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution is increased above that of the pure water. Acids Acids are solution with pH below 7 The lower the pH, the stronger acid it is. Acids taste sour, are corrosive to metals, and become less acidic when mixed with bases Examples: lemon, hydrochloric acid Bases Bases are also called alkali which are compounds that reduce the concentration hydrogen ions in the solution. Many bases form hydroxide ions when dissolve in water. Bases Bases are solution with pH above 7 The higher the pH, the stronger base it gets.

Bases are usually bitter in taste and are slippery. pH Scale pH [H+] 14 1 [OH ] 10,000,000 13 1

1,000,000 12 1 100,000 11 1 10,000 10 1 1,000

9 1 100 8 1 10 7 1 1

6 10 1 5 100 1 4 1,000 1 3

10,000 1 2 100,000 1 1 1,000,000 1 0

10,000,000 1 _ pH Scale 1M NaOH 1M HCl Scientific Notation Examples Ordinary decimal notation 300 4,000 5,720,000,000 0.0000000061

Scientific notation (normalized) 3102 4103 5.72109 6.1109 pH scale in scientific notation How much more acidic is something at a pH of 3 than something at a pH of 5? Use scientific notation for each to determine the answer. Scientific Units Prefix Symbol Meaning

Base Unit Multiplied by teraT trillion 1,000,000,000,000 gigag billion 1,000,000,000 megaM million 1,000,000 kilok thousand 1,000 hectoh hundred 100 decada ten 10

single units, no prefix - Examples: meter, liter, gram 100 decid tenth 0.1 centic hundredth 0.01 millim thousandth 0.001 microu millionth 0.000001 nanon billionth 0.000000001 picop trillionth

0.00000000001 Factor 1012 109 106 103 102 101 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 The Metric System The International System of Units (SI) is the modern form of the metric system

and is generally a system of units of measurement devised around seven base units and the convenience of the number ten. Name Unit symbol Quantity metre kilogram second ampere m kg s A kelvin

K candela cd mole mol length mass time electric current thermodynamic temperature luminous intensity amount of

substance Strong Acid Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Class Average Weak Acid Neutral Weak Base Strong Base

Strong Acid Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 Group 5 Group 6 Class Average Weak Acid Neutral Weak Base Strong Base Acid Rain

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic. Acid rain is caused by the emissions of ammonium, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Effect of pH on Living Systems Acid Rain can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition. Effects of Acid Rain Sandstone figure in a castle in Germany, photographed in 1908 (left) and again in 1968 (right). Biology Lab Checklist: Seed Germination

Title Outcome Problem Hypothesis: (must be testable) Materials: Control: Dependent Variable: _______ (you measure) Independent Variable _______ (you change/the groups) Procedure: (step by step, reproducible) Data Table Columns are labeled. Units of measurement are included. Class Data is included. Graph Title X axis labeled Y axis labeled Scale is appropriate. Class Data is included.

Analysis: Uses complete sentences Uses numbers to support your findings. Specific questions for this lab are answered. Which pH is the best for growing radish seeds? Is there a survival trend for the seeds? Could anything besides pH have affected this experiment? (Sources of error) Were there any groups that had data that was unusual? What could be improved next time to produce better results? Conclusion: A final statement explaining whether or not your hypothesis was supported by the data. What was the overall final discovery of this lab? Conclusion statement is underlined. Biology Lab Checklist: Seed Germination

Title Outcome Problem Hypothesis: (must be testable) Materials: Control: Dependent Variable: _______ (you measure) Independent Variable _______ (you change/the groups) Procedure: (step by step, reproducible) Data Table Columns are labeled. Units of measurement are included. Class Data is included. Graph Title X axis labeled Y axis labeled Scale is appropriate. Class Data is included.

Analysis: Uses complete sentences Uses numbers to support your findings. Specific questions for this lab are answered. Which pH is the best for growing radish seeds? Is there a survival trend for the seeds? Could anything besides pH have affected this experiment? (Sources of error) Were there any groups that had data that was unusual? What could be improved next time to produce better results? Conclusion: A final statement explaining whether or not your hypothesis was supported by the data. What was the overall final discovery of this lab? Conclusion statement is underlined. Nutrition Project Overview

Phelps video How is nutrition important? Playing the role of a dietitian

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