Versification, Rhyme and Metre - Filozofski fakultet u Splitu

Versification, Rhyme and Metre - Filozofski fakultet u Splitu

Versification versification covers all aspects of formal organizations of sounds that characterize verse range from localized alliteration patterns of rhythm, metre and rhyme larger matters, genre, sonnet, ballad, free verse focus on poetry, but grows out of language metrics analysis of measures or feet within a line of verse (from Gk measure) poetics embraces formal pattering in language of all kinds, including drama and narrative (Gk

poiesis, fashioning, making) measure English a Germanic Language, organized around presence or absence of stress like Dutch, German, Danish, Norwegian... not like classical and Romance languages, organized around syllable length Anglo-Saxon poetry, like Beowulf, organized around number of stresses in a line (four) number unstressed syllables not important also, two or three had to begin with same sound,

alliteration poem "Wulf and Edawacer" Wulf & Eadwacer / x / v Wulf, min Wulf / x x / x v

seoce gedygan / x x / x wena me thine / x / x x thine seldcymas Wulf, my Wulf, it was wanting you That made me sick, your seldom coming, (Michael Alexander translation)

this is stressed or alliterative verse usually performed, based on half-line units variations on above appear in other Anglo-Saxon poems oral-formulaic poetry The Couplet 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

A Knight ther was and that a worthy man 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 That fro the time that he first bigan another force in play syllabic or quantitative metre (often with endrhyme) brought into play by Chaucer adopted French and Italian metrical models regular number of syllables per line (usually 8 or 10 syllables, octo-decasyllabic) rhyme schemes include rhyme royal, ...

Look at two lines from Pope's The Rape of the Lock (1712): And now unveiled the toilet stands displayed Each silver vase in mystic order laid Look at two lines from Pope's The Rape of the Lock (1712): x / x / x / x / x

/ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 And now unveiled the toilet stands displayed x / x / x / x / x / 1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8 9 10 Each silver vase in mystic order laid unstressed + stressed. This is one foot, or measure. Name for this type = iambic usually a blend of the two = accentual-syllabic metre x / x / x / x / x x / To be or not to be, that is the question. The curfew tolls the knell of parting day The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,

-Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1751) x / x / x / x / x / The curfew tolls the knell of parting day x / x / x / x / x / The lowing herd winds slowly o'er the lea,

-Thomas Gray, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard (1751) You know that it would be untrue, You know that I would be a liar, If I was to say to you Girl, we couldnt get much higher. Come on, baby, light my fire. Try to set the night on fire. -Jim Morrison, Light My Fire (1966) x /

x / x / x / You know that it would be untrue, x / x /x / x/ You know that I would be a liar, x/ x / x / x If I was to say to you / x / x /

x Girl, we couldnt get much higher. x / x / x / x Come on, baby, light my fire. x / x / x / x Try to set the night on fire. -Jim Morrison, Light My Fire (1966) "Villanelle, W. E. Henley

A dainty thing's the Villanelle. Sly, musical, a jewel in rhyme, It serves its purpose passing well. A double-clappered silver bell That must be made to clink in chime, A dainty thing's the Villanelle; And if you wish to flute a spell, Or ask a meeting "neath the lime", It serves its purpose passing well. You must not ask of it the swell Of organs grandiose and sublime A dainty thing's the Villanelle; And, filled with sweetness, as a shell

Is filled with sound, and launched in time, It serves its purpose passing well Still fair to see and good to smell As in the quaintness of its prime, A dainty thing's the Villanelle, It serves its purpose passing well. Villanelle from Latin villanus (rustic) A1 b A2

a b A1 a b A1 a b A2

a b A2 a b A1 A2 Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night

Do not go gentle into that good night, Old age should burn and rave at close of day; Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right, Because their words had forked no lightning they Do not go gentle into that good night. Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Dylan Thomas, Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight, And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way, Do not go gentle into that good night. Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay, Rage, rage against the dying of the light. And you, my father, there on the sad height, Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray. Do not go gentle into that good night. Rage, rage against the dying of the light. five basic measures:

iambus x / again, unveil, reverse trochee / x happy, never, heartless anapest x x / entertain, repossess, hurry up spondee / / heart break, Big Mac, wine glass dactyl / x x happiness, orchestra, discotheque Dimeter two feet Trimeter three feet Tetrameter four feet Pentameter five feet

Hexameter six feet ... O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, - Milton, "Samson Agonistes (1671) x / / / x/ x /

x / O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, - Milton, "Samson Agonistes (1671) Thus I Pass by And die As one Un known And gone

- Herrick, "Upon His Departure Hence (17th c.) x / Thus I x / Pass by x / And die x /

As one x / Un known x / And gone - Herrick, "Upon His Departure Hence (17th c.) Samuel Johnson, The Rambler However minute the employment may appear, of analysing lines into syllables, and whatever ridicule may be incurred by a

solemn deliberation upon accents and pauses, it is certain that without this petty knowledge no man can be a poet; and that from the proper disposition of single sounds results that harmony that adds force to reason, and gives grace to sublimity. Metre is a blueprint; rhythm is the inhabited building. Metre is a skeleton; rhythm is the functioning body. Metre is a map; rhythm is a land. Philip Hobsbaum, Metre, Rhythm and

Verse Form Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Had we but world enough, and time, This coyness, lady, were no crime. We would sit down and think which way To walk, and pass our long loves day; Marvell, To His Coy Mistress

But at my back I always hear Times winged chariot hurrying near; And yonder all before us lie Deserst of vast eternity. H.G. Widdowson, Practical Stylistics The dissociation of language from its normal connections wtih context, further confirmed by the

way it is fashioned into prosodic shape, directs the attention of the reader to the langauge itself enclosed within the confines of the poem. Interpretation is the function of a heightened awareness of how language can mean, how its resources can be exploited to express different perspectives on familar reality. In this respect, the reading of a poem is itself the representation of a renewal of our experience of the language, freed from the usual dulling effect of context. Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822),

To Divide is Not to Take Away The heart that loves, the brain that contemplates, The life that wears, the spirit that creates One object, and one form, and builds thereby A sepulchre for its eternity Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822), To Divide is Not to Take Away x / x / x /

x / x x The heart that loves, the brain that contemplates, x / x / x / x/ x / The life that wears, the spirit that creates x / x / x / x

/ x / One object, and one form, and builds thereby x / xx x / x/ x / A sepulchre for its eternity On the composition of While Resting on the Bridge at the Foot of Brothers Water When I returned, I found William writing a poem descriptive of the

sights and sounds we saw and heard. There was the gentle flowing of the stream, the glittering lively lake, green fields, without a living creature to be seen on them; behind us, a flat pasture with forty-two cattle feeding; to our left, the road leading to the hamlet. No smoke there, the sun shone on the bare roofs. The people were at work, ploughing, harrowing, and sowing; lasses working; a dog barking now and then; cocks crowing, birds twittering; the snow in patches at the top of the highest hills; yellow palms, purple and green twigs on the birches, ashes with their glittering stems quite bare. The hawthorn a bright green, with black stems under the oak. The moss of the oaks glossy.... As we went up the vale of Brothers Water, more and more cattle feeding, a hundred of them. William finished his poem before we

got to the foot of Kirkstone. - Dorothy Wordsworth, Journal of April 16, 1802 Wordsworth, While Resting on the Bridge at the Foot of Brothers Water The Cock is crowing, The stream is flowing, The small birds twitter, The lake doth glitter, The green field sleeps in the sun; The oldest and youngest

Are at work with the strongest; The cattle are graing, Their heads never raising; There are forty feeding like one! Gerard Manley Hopkins (18441889) The Windhover I caught this morning mornings minion, kingdom of daylights dauphin, dapple-dawn-drawn Falcon, in his riding ... Gerard Manley Hopkins (18441889) The Buglers First Communion (1879),

Gerard Manley Hopkins (18441889) (Carrion Comfort) Not, I'll not, carrion comfort, Despair, not feast on thee; Not untwist slack they may be these last strands of man In me r, most weary, cry I can no more. I can; Can something, hope, wish day come, not choose not to be. But ah, but O thou terrible, why wouldst thou rude on me Thy wring-world right foot rock? lay a lionlimb against me? scan With darksome devouring eyes my bruisd bones? and fan, O in turns of tempest, me heaped there; me frantic to avoid thee and flee?

Gerard Manley Hopkins (18441889) (Carrion Comfort) Why? That my chaff might fly; my grain lie, sheer and clear. Nay in all that toil, that coil, since (seems) I kissed the rod, Hand rather, my heart lo! lapped strength, stole joy, would laugh, cher. Cheer whom though? the hero whose heaven-handling flung me, fot trd Me? or me that fought him? O which one? is it each one? That night, that year Of now done darkness I wretch lay wrestling with (my God!)

my God.

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