Verbals: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives

Verbals: Gerunds, Participles, and Infinitives

VERBALS: GERUNDS, PARTICIPLES, AND INFINITIVES Academic Writing 2 Week 3 VERBALS INTRODUCTION What is a verbal? A verbal is a verb form which functions as a noun or an adjective. In English, there are three types of verbals: Gerunds Participles

Infinitives Gerund a verb that has an ing which functions as a noun Participle a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and then plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb Infinitive a verb that is linked with to before it and acts like GERUND VERBALS Gerund verbals are ing verbs that act like a noun. Only certain verbs can have a gerund come after it.

I avoid drinking on weekdays. I love hiking in the mountains. I am fond of traveling to different countries. deny risk delay consider

can't help keep give up be fond of finish

quit put off practice postpone tolerate suggest

stop (quit) regret enjoy keep (on) dislike

admit avoid recall mind miss detest

appreciate recommend get/be through get/be tired of get/be get/be used to accustomed to

CONTINUOUS ACTION Sometimes, a gerund has to be followed by a noun or adverb that is describing that action. We watched him playing basketball. (continuous action) We watched him play basketball. (continuous action) I felt my heart pumping vigorously. (continuous action) INFINITIVE VERBALS

Infinitive verbals are verbs plus the word to in front of them Many times, infinitives act like nouns, but they can also act in many other ways Infinitives can have objects called objects of the infinitive The team wanted to win. (direct object noun) To win the game was the teams goal. (subject with object of the infinitive) The team knew that the game to win was the final game. (adjective) The puppy ran to get the bone. (adverb) To better reflect my goals, I plan to completely remove any obstacles. (split infinitive, also appositive with direct object)

agree decide expect hesitate learn need

promise neglect hope want plan

attempt propose intend pretend WORDS THAT CAN BE BOTH start

begin continue hate prefer like love

rememb er try ON WORDS THAT USE BOTH Be careful, using one or the other can slightly change the meaning of the sentence. Jack forgets to take out the cat. (He regularly forgets.) Jack forgets taking out the cat.

(He did it, but he doesn't remember now.) Jack forgot to take out the cat. (He never did it.) Jack forgot taking out the cat. (He did it, but he didn't remember sometime later.) PARTICIPLES Two kinds: Present participles Past Participles

Present participles are easily misunderstood as gerunds because they end in ing. However, participles act as adjectives where gerunds act as nouns. A participle is always describing something. The sleeping cat did not see the creeping mouse. (present) The children, sitting quietly, waited for the teacher. (present) Trapped by the tide, the swimmers drifted off course. (past) EXAMPLES The thief arrested for the robbery shot at the security guard. They are sure the extra planning will make a difference in the end. Godzilla made a game of smashing all of the red cars parked near the lake.

Delighted with the opportunity to learn, Christine took the internship in New York. The show offers everyone a chance to be a millionaire. Samuel decided that missing the lecture every day was hurting his grade. The swimmer, driven by the need to be the best in the world, made himself sick with anxiety. The marathon runner, pushed to the edge of endurance, collapsed at the finish line. Freds arguing every call is getting frustrating. The completed meal was so beautiful that the guests hesitated to eat it. Seeing is believing.

recall plus a gerund continue plus an infinitive Lion noun running in the field participle Workers noun sitting participle

enjoy plus a gerund try plus an infinitive start plus a(n) recommend plus a(n) Classmates noun create a participle

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