Using Types Slides thanks to Mark Jones Expressions Have Types: The type of an expression tells you what kind of value you might expect to see if you evaluate that expression In Haskell, read :: as has type Examples: 1 :: Int, 'a' :: Char, True :: Bool, 1.2 :: Float,
You can even ask GHCI for the type of an expression: :t expr 2 Type Errors: Prelude> 'a' && True :26:1: Couldn't match expected type `Bool' with actual type `Char' In the first argument of `(&&)', namely 'a' In the expression: 'a' && True In an equation for `it': it = 'a' && True
Prelude> odd 1 + 2 :29:7: No instance for (Num Bool) arising from a use of `+' Possible fix: add an instance declaration for (Num Bool) In the expression: odd 1 + 2 In an equation for `it': it = odd 1 + 2 3 Pairs:
A pair packages two values into one (1, 2) ('a', 'z') (True, False) Components can have different types (1, 'z') ('a', False) (True, 2) The type of a pair whose first component is of type
A and second component is of type B is written (A,B) What are the types of the pairs above? 4 Operating on Pairs: There are built-in functions for extracting the first and second component of a pair: fst (True, 2) = True snd (0, 7) = 7 Is the following property true?
For any pair p, (fst p, snd p) = p 5 Lists: Lists can be used to store zero or more elements, in sequence, in a single value: [] [1, 2, 3] ['a', 'z']
[True, True, False] All of the elements in a list must have the same type The type of a list whose elements are of type A is written as [A] What are the types of the lists above? 6 Overloading Some expressions can have more than one
type Examples 23 [] fx=x<3 f x = show x ++ is the answer One way to get these is overloading Three important causes of overloading Numbers Num
Comparisons Ord Displaying as a string Show Information about overloading By typing :i T to GHCI you can find out details of about the T kind of overloading. For example
:i Show :i Num Example: Num *ProgrammingOutLoud> :i Num class (Eq a, Show a) => Num a where (+) :: a -> a -> a (*) :: a -> a -> a (-) :: a -> a -> a negate :: a -> a abs :: a -> a
signum :: a -> a fromInteger :: Integer -> a -- Defined in GHC.Num instance Num Int -- Defined in GHC.Num instance Num Integer -- Defined in GHC.Num instance Num Double -- Defined in GHC.Float instance Num Float -- Defined in GHC.Float Integer Constants like 5, 35, 897 are in the Num class They default to the type Integer
Double Constants like 5.6, and 0.0 are Fractional These default to the type Double Type declarations If you have a problem with a numeric constant like 5 or 78.9, you will probably see an error that mentions Num or Fractional. Fix these by adding type declarations