Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence Dr Ban Hadi 2018 Objectives: by the end of this lecture, the 5th year student should 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. :be able to Define urinary incontinence Summarize the types of urinary incontinence Differentiate between its types by history taking

Demonstrate on menniquene the examination of a case with urinary incontinence Predict the management option for different case presentations Text books Gynecology by ten teachers 20th ed. And dewhurts

?What is incontinence Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary loss of urine that is objectively demonstrable and is a social or hygienic problem The prevalence increases with age, with approximately 5 % of women below 44 years

of age being affected, rising to 20 % of those older than 65 years Urinary incontinence Common symptoms associated with incontinence Stress incontinence is a symptom and a sign

and means loss of urine on physical effort. It is not a diagnosis .Urgency means a sudden desire to void Urge incontinence is an involuntary loss of .urine associated with a strong desire to void Overflow incontinence occurs without any

detrusor activity when the bladder is over.distended Frequency is defined as the passing of urine seven or more times a day, or being awoken from sleep more than once a night to void Classification of incontinence Urethral causes

Urethral sphincter incompetence (urodynamic stress incontinence) Detrusor over-activity or the unstable bladder - this is either neuropathic or non-neuropathy Retention with overflow Congenital causes: Epispadias Miscellaneous

Extra-urethral causes Congenital causes Fistula Stress 50%, urge 20%,mixed 30% :Urodynamic stress incontinence USI

is noted during filling cystometry, and is defined as the involuntary leakage of urine during increased abdominal pressure in the absence of a detrusor contraction Risk Factors for stress Urinary Incontinence

.Multiparity (particularly vaginal births) Forceps delivery*. Perineal trauma. Long labour*. Epidural analgesia. Birthweight >4 kg. Increasing age.

Postmenopause. Obesity studies have shown that significant weight loss among obese women is associated with major improvements in urinary leakage symptoms. Connective tissue disease. Chronic cough (e.g. bronchiectasis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).

Doxazocin (alpha-adrenergic antagonist) for hypertension causes relaxation of the urethral sphincter*. :Diagnosis History: risk factors and symptoms, risk factors as cough, constipation, high parity and difficult deliveries

Stress incontinence is the usual symptom, but urgency,frequency and urge incontinence may be .present .The patient may present with symptoms of prolapse The severity of symptoms vary from mild cases where incontinence occurs with heavy exercise such as lifting heavy weight to severe cases where

.incontinence develops simply on changing position Examination Cough test: stress incontinence may be . demonstrated when the patient coughs

Vaginal examination should assess for prolapse, atrophy, fistula and pelvic masses :Q Tip test A sterile swab stick is inserted into the bladder cavity. As the patient strains in continent

women the angle between the horizon and the swab should not exceed 30 degree. While women with stress incontinence the angle .may reach up to 60 degree Investigations Mid-stream specimen of urine: to exclude-1

infection Frequency/volume chart: (urinary or-2 bladder diary) provides an objective assessment of a patients fluid input and urine output Pad test: by measuring the weight gain of a-3

perineal sanitary towel Uroflowmetry : is the measurement of urine-4 flow rate. A flow rate < 15mL \ s on more than one occasion is considered abnormal in female Cystometry-5 involves the measurement of the pressure volume relationship of the bladder. It measures the abdominal pressure, intravesical pressure and detrusor pressure .The following are parameters of normal bladder function

. Residual urine of < 50 mL . First desire to void between 150 and 200 mL . Capacity between 400 and 600 mL Detrusor pressure rise of < 15 cmH20 during .filling and standing .Absence of systolic detrusor contractions .No leakage on coughing A voiding detrusor pressure rise of < 70 cmH20 with a peak flow rate of > 15 mLis for a volume > 150 mL other investigations in selected cases like: - 6 Videocystourethrography, Urethral pressure

profilometry, Cystourethroscopy, Ultrasound and IVU usually performed when there is hematuria, recurrent UTI, fistula, urgency and dysurea :Treatment of Urodynamic stress incontinence :A. Non surgical

Simple measures : Treatment of urinary tract infection Restriction of fluid intake Reduce caffeine intake Modifying medication(e.g. diuretics) Treating chronic cough and constipation play an important role in the management of most

.types of urinary incontinence Prevention Shortening the second stage of delivery and reducing traumatic delivery may result in fewer women developing stress incontinence. The benefits of hormone replacement therapy

have not been substantiated. The role of pelvic floor exercises either before or during .pregnancy needs to be evaluated Conservative treatment is indicated when ,The incontinence is mild- 1 The patient is medically unfit for surgery or - 2

The patient does not wish to undergo an -3 operation Women who have not yet completed their - 4 .families It may also be useful prior to surgery in case - 5 of a long waiting list

Non pharmacological- 1 Pelvic floor muscle training : Also known- 1 as Kegel exercises, PFMT entails voluntary contraction of the levator ani muscles. As with any muscle building, exercise sets should be performed numerous times during the day, with some reporting up to 50 or 60 times each

day. The aim is to enhance the tone of levator ani muscle. 40 -60 % of cases improve with this exercise Perineometry-2

A perineometer is a cylindrical vaginal device which can be used to assess the strength of pelvic floor contractions It can be used to help an individual to contract her pelvic floor muscles appropriately and is also useful in detecting improvement

.following pelvic floor exercises Weighted vaginal cones-3 These are currently available as sets of five or three all of the same shape and size but of

increasing weight (2090 g) Maximal electrical stimulation-4 Vaginal devices may be useful for use-5 .during exercise on a short term basis

Pharmacological 2 Duloxetine-1 1-adrenoceptor agonists, oestrogens and-2 tricyclic antidepressants have all been used for the treatment of stress incontinence B. Surgical treatment of Urodynamic stress

incontinence :Aim of surgery to provide suburethral support; restoration of the proximal urethra and bladder neck to the zone of intra-abdominal pressure transmission; to increase urethral resistance;

:Vaginal procedures-1 Retropubic tape procedures TVT (tension free vaginal tape) the most popular surgical treatment for stress incontinence. In this operation a synthetic inert tape is inserted through vaginal incision and passed bellow the urethra by trocar and attached to the

anterior abdominal wall. Complications include bladder and urethral injury, stricture and retention of urine TVT :Transobturator tape procedures TOT

In this operation a tape is inserted through vaginal incision and passed bellow the urethra through the lower part of obturator membrane into the medial aspect of thigh. It requires special needle. This operation is widely used .now days Complications: hemorrhage, infection and the patient may have chronic pelvic pain

TOT :Anterior colporrhaphy is still performed for stress incontinence. Although it is usually the best operation for a cystourethrocele, the cure rates for

urodynamic stress incontinence are poor compared to suprapubic procedures. The success rate is about 60% :Urethral bulking agents are minimally invasive surgical procedures for the treatment of urodynamic stress

incontinence and may be useful in the elderly and those women who have undergone previous operations and have a fixed, scarred .fibrosed urethra Abdominal: performed through an abdominal incision-2

Burch colposuspension: In this operation the Para urethral tissues are sutured to the ipsilateral iliopectineal ligament to elevate the .bladder base. The success rate is over 90% :MarshallMarchettiKrantz procedure is a suprapubic operation in which the

paraurethral tissue at the level of the bladder neck is sutured to the periostium and/or perichondrium of the posterior aspect of the pubic symphysis. It is less popular due to the .risk of periostitis Laparoscopic colposuspension-3

Complex- 4 Artificial sphincter May be employed when conventional surgery fails. This is implantable and consists of a fluid-filled inflatable cuff which is surgically placed around the bladder .neck

:Detrusor overactivity DO previously called detrusor instability, is a urodynamic observation characterized by involuntary detrusor contractions during the filling phase which may be spontaneous or provoked (such as drinking or changing position). This is primarily a disease of unknown cause in

which the bladder contracts strongly to expel the minimum amount of urine which is normally tolerated by normal balder, and there is excessive cholinergic stimulation of the detrusor .muscle Risk factors for detrusor overactivity

Childhood bedwetting. Obesity.

Smoking. Previous hysterectomy. Previous continence surgery Clinical presentation

The combination of symptoms of urgency, frequency and nocturia is termed the overactive bladder (OAB). When detrusor contractions observed during cystometry the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity is established. In most of the cases physical examination reveals nothing;

However; mass, prolapse and atrophy should be excluded and cough test is performed to exclude USI. Neurological exam as bladder hyper reflexia may be the earliest sigh of multiple sclerosis. Investigations: same as USI

Treatment Bladder retraining Instruct to void every 1.5 h during the day; she must not void between these times, she must wait or be incontinent. Increase voiding interval by half an hour when initial goal achieved, and continue with 2.hourly voiding and so on

Drug therapy Imipramine: is a tricyclic antidepressant drug which has also anticholinergic properties. In a dose of 25 mg for 3 months up to 90 % of women

get improvement Tolterodine is a competitive muscarinic receptor antagonist with relative functional selectivity for .bladder muscarinic receptors Oxybutynin is anticholinergic drug which has special affinity to the detrusor muscle. It is much . superior to imipramine

Desmopressin is a synthetic vasopressin analogue. It has strong antidiuretic effects .without altering blood pressure Intravesical therapy intravesical administration of Botulinum toxin may offer an alternative to surgery in those women with intractable

detrusor overactivity Neuromodulation Stimulation of the dorsal sacral nerve has been developed for use in patients with both idiopathic and neurogenic detrusor overactivity Surgery

Clam cystoplasty-1 detrusor myectomy-2 urinary diversion-3 Retention with overflow

Insidious failure of bladder emptying may lead to chronic retention and finally, when normal voiding is ineffective, to overflow incontinence Symptoms Symptoms include poor stream, incomplete bladder emptying and straining to void, together with overflow

stress incontinence. Often there will be recurrent urinary tract infection. Cystometry is usually required to make the diagnosis, and bladder ultrasonography or intravenous urogram may be necessary to investigate .the state of the upper urinary tract to exclude reflux EMQ

.A Urodynamic assessment Immediate management of a 73- 1 year-old woman with frequency, B Urgent flexible .urgency and haematuria .cystoscopy Management of a 38-year-old 2 .C Renal tract ultrasound

woman with symptoms of only D Insertion of midurethral stress incontinence who has completed a course of pelvic floor .tape .exercises without improvement E Immediate release Should be performed after failed 3

.oyxbutynin conservative and/or medical .F Topical oestrogen management before second-line .G Oral antibiotics .treatments for incontinence .H Botulinum toxin injection .First-line drug treatment for OAB 4

.I Duloxetine ANSWERS 1B Because of the haematuria, cystoscopy is required .to exclude a malignancy 2D It is reasonable to insert a midurethral tape without ,further investigations in this situation

.because there are no symptoms of mixed incontinence 3A Urodynamic assessment will exclude a picture of mixed incontinence, which is necessary before .more invasive treatment 4E Immediate release oxybutynin will effectively treat overactive bladder symptoms and no further investigations are required before treatment

.Choose the single best answer A 45 year old woman attends outpatients complaining of a 3-year history of stress incontinence, urgency and urge incontinence. She leaks urine about four times a day, has to wear sanitary pads all the time and rarely travels due to the urgency and need .to pass urine 8 or 9 times during the day

Examination reveals her to be of normal BMI, with a weak pelvic .floor muscle strength ?What would be the recommended first line of management .A Commence the patient on an oral anticholinergic medication for 8 weeks B Arrange urodynamic assessment to define the underlying cause of her .problems C Arrange a 68 week course of supervised pelvic floor exercises and bladder .retraining

.D Admit the patient for a cystoscopy .E Test the urine for infection and treat with antibiotics C Pelvic floor strengthening exercises will improve up to 50% of stress incontinence problems and may avoid the need to treat urge incontinence with anticholinergics

Thank you

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