Unit 8 - PC\|MAC

Unit 8 - PC\|MAC

Unit 8 Review Numbers Writers usually write out numbers they can write in a word or two and use Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2, 3...) to express larger numbers. However, most writers also follow a set of general guidelines about which numbers should be written out and which should be expressed in numerals. Lets take a look

Numbers When to write the numbers out? Numbers expressed in two words or less. Eleven students One hundred books

Write out and hyphenate any number between twenty-one and ninety-nine. Numbers outside this range do not require a hyphen. Seventy-nine animals

Thirty-four days Fifty-five miles per hour When to write the numbers out? Large rounded numbers or estimated numbers. Numbers at the beginning of a sentence.

Five trillion Four hundred and two staff members are in that unit. Five thousand Twenty-five trucks arrived

with supplies. Seven hundred When to write numbers out? Numbers in dialogue. "Sabrina swam five hundred and seven laps," he marveled.

Centuries and decades. The nineteenth century The eighties "I put two hundred and twenty pieces of candy in the jar," she announced. "How long will it take you to

The roaring twenties When to write numbers out? Ordinal numbers, such as first, second, and third Simple fractions One fourth of an ounce

Her first birthday One half of a cake My second cupcake Two thirds of the pie His fifth time around the track When to write numbers out? Time of day with "o'clock"

and on the half and quarter hour. Five o'clock Half past two A quarter past ten Remember, above all else,

ALWAYS be Logical Fallacies What is a logical fallacy? A logical fallacy is faulty reasoning used to support an idea, theory, thesis, or hypothesis. When a careful reader identifies a logical fallacy, it may cause him or her to question the validity of the entire argument, so

it is important to identify logical fallacies in both your own and others' writing. Slippery Slope The slippery slope fallacy is basically how it sounds. It is a premise that if "A" happens, then so will "B...C...D..." and so forth, through a series of small steps. EXAMPLE If I do not get straight A's in high school, then I won't get

into an Ivy League college, then I will not get a good job, and I will be stuck in a terrible job for the rest of my life. Post hoc (aka..false cause) This fallacy implies that "A" caused "B" because "A" happened before "B." EXAMPLE I chose not to wash my sports uniform. Our team won the game. We won the game because I did not wash my

uniform. I will no longer wash my uniform before games so that we will continue to win. Genetic Fallacy This is the assumption that since "A" is associated with "B," "A" and "B" share the same good and bad traits. EXAMPLE Hitler loved the work of the music composer Wagner.

Since Hitler is associated with Wagner and Hitler was a terrible human being, Wagner must also be an Cherry Picking A fallacy that relies upon choosing only that data or evidence that will lead to your desired outcome rather than revealing the full picture. EXAMPLE This is not uncommon in the courtroom. Some

attorneys may choose to ignore the evidence that goes against their cases, setting forth only the "facts" that support a verdict in favor of their clients. Fallacy of the single cause This is the assumption that an event has only one cause. EXAMPLE Any person who uses suntan oil is just as responsible for the oil

problems in our oceans as the tankers who create oil spills. Correlation Proves Causation This is the logical fallacy that because "A" and "B" happen to occur at the same time, there is a causal relationship. EXAMPLE Whenever I develop a rash, I put lotion on it and the rash goes away. The lotion must cause the rash to

disappear. However, the rash may just go away eventually whether I put lotion on it or not. Reversing Causal Direction This is the implication that "A" causes "B" without considering that "B" causes "A." EXAMPLE Each night when the streetlights turn on, the sun begins to set.

Semicolons To join two independent clauses Writing is difficult work; it requires much time and effort. Good writers write multiple drafts of the same essay; furthermore, they always proofread an essay

before they turn it in. With conjunctive adverbs It is wise to finish your homework immediately; however, for procrastinators, this is easier said than done. Procrastinators, however, can change their ways.

To further separate items in a list when they already contain a comma. The group included Mr. King, the president, Ms. Kennedy, the vice president, Mr. Green, the secretary, and Mrs. Brown, the treasurer. The group included Mr. King, the president; Ms. Kennedy, the vice president; Mr. Green, the secretary; and Mrs. Brown, the treasurer.

Colons Before a series of items Be sure that an independent clause precedes the colon. The colon should not split an independent clause.

I went to the store and bought a number of items: bananas, bread, chicken, lettuce, and ice. Between and indepedent clause and an explaination, rule, or example.

Now that your flowers are wilting, you can see what I mean: the summers here are far too warm. Before a quote One can understand how cold it was from Hart's words: "The snow clung to the smallest twigs of every tree" (37).

In his journal, Hart paints a vivid portrait of the storm: The snow clung to the smallest twigs of every tree, and a thousand patterns of lace arrayed themselves against the night sky. It lay heaped up over tree roots like mounds of whipped cream and trimmed the back fence in unfurled rows of white silk ribbons (37). Before a subtitle CSI: SVU

Star Trek: The Next Generation Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead After the gretting of a business letter To whom it may

concern: Dear Ms. Saunders: To the hiring manager: Context Clues How to utilize context clues Look for examples of the unknown word in the

sentence. If there are no examples of the word in the sentence, look for antonyms or synonyms of the word somewhere in the sentence. If the word has no examples and there are no antonyms or synonyms, try substituting a familiar word for the one you dont know. Essay Structure

Definition and Example Prompt: List the major steps in the rock cycle. Sample Thesis: There are three major steps in the rock cycle metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary. Compare/Contrast Cause /Effect

Prompt: Discuss the relationship between the Senate and the House of Representatives. Sample Thesis: The Senate and the House of Representatives have a symbiotic relationshipone could not exist without the other as evidenced in four particular situations. Analysis

Prompt: In 2011, a Cezanne painting, The Card Players, sold for more than $250 million. Explain why the painting sold for more than any other painting, even accounting for inflation. Sample Thesis: The age, complexity, and provenance of Cezanne's The Card Players justifies the high price it fetched in 2011. Persuasion

Prompt: What time do you think the school day should begin? Sample Thesis: There are three reasons why the school day should not start before nine o'clock in the morning.

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