Unit 6: Memory, Thinking, & Language Day 3: Retrieval ...

Unit 6: Memory, Thinking, & Language Day 3: Retrieval ...

Unit 9: Memory, Thinking, & Language Lesson 3: Language Lesson Essential Question What is the relationship between cognition and language development? Key Lesson Vocabulary: Chomsky, Inborn language acquisition device; Critical periods; Phonemes;

Morphemes; Syntax; Grammar; Semantics; Whorfs Reciprocal determinism thesis DAILY COMMENTARY: How many languages to do speak? How did you learn to speak? Is language acquisition effortful or automatic? READINGS / Assignments:

READ: Myers 410-428 Chomsky Handout NYT Language Gap Study Piraha handout DO / DUE: Vocab cards Review packet Reflective writing: Language Gap & creative thought (see performance task)

Language Language, our spoken, written, or gestured work, is the way we communicate meaning to ourselves and others. M. & E. Bernheim/ Woodfin Camp & Associates Language transmits culture. 2 Language Development

Time Life Pictures/ Getty Images Children learn their native languages much before learning to add 2+2. We learn, on average (after age 1), 3,500 words a year, amassing 60,000 words by the time we

graduate from high school. 3 When do we learn language? Babbling Stage: Beginning at 4 months, the infant spontaneously utters various sounds, like ah-goo.

Babbling is not imitation of adult speech. 4 When do we learn language? One-Word Stage: Beginning at or around his first birthday, a child starts to speak one word at a time and is able to make family members understand him. The word doggy may mean look at the dog out there.

5 When do we learn language? Two-Word Stage: Before the 2nd year a child starts to speak in two-word sentences. This form of speech is called telegraphic speech because the child speaks like a telegram: Go car, means I would like to go for a ride in the car. 6

When do we learn language? Longer phrases: After telegraphic speech, children begin uttering longer phrases (Mommy get ball) with syntactical sense, and by early elementary school they are employing humor. You never starve in the desert because of all the sand-which-is there. 7

Stage & Age of Language Development 8 Count off: 1s & 2s 1s will read article about Piraha tribe 2s will read article about Noam Chomsky Discussion & Report Outs

Ones tell Twos: Describe the Piraha tribe What can we learn from the Piraha about the relationship between thinking and language? Twos Tell Ones: Describe Chomskys theory Why does Chomsky say there are critical periods for language development? Twos report out on Piraha Tribe Ones report out on Chomsky

Explaining Language Development 1. Operant Learning: Skinner (1957, 1985) believed that language development may be explained on the basis of learning principles such as association, imitation, and reinforcement. 11

Explaining Language Development 2. Inborn Universal Grammar: Chomsky (1959, 1987) opposed Skinners ideas and suggested that the rate of language acquisition is so fast that it cannot be explained through learning principles, and thus most of it is inborn. Chomsky says everyone has a Language

Acquisition Device 12 Explaining Language Development 3. Statistical Learning and Critical Periods: Well before our first birthday, our brains are discerning word breaks by statistically analyzing which syllables in hap-py-ba-by go together. These statistical analyses are learned during critical periods of child

development. 13 Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience modifies the brain. David Hume Kennerly/ Getty Images Michael Newman/ Photo Edit, Inc. Eye of Science/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

Genes, Brain, & Language 14 Language & Age Learning new languages gets harder with age. 15 Language Structure

Phonemes: The smallest distinct sound unit in a spoken language. For example: bat, has three phonemes b a t chat, has three phonemes ch a t 16 Language Structure Morpheme: The smallest unit that carries a meaning. It may be a word or part of a word. For example: Milk = milk

Pumpkin = pump . kin Unforgettable = un for get table 17 Structuring Language Phonemes Basic sounds (about 40) ea, sh. Morpheme

s Smallest meaningful units (100,000) un, for. Words Meaningful units (290,500) meat, pumpkin. Phrase

Composed of two or more words (326,000) meat eater. Sentence Composed of many words (infinite) She opened the jewelry box. 18 Grammar Grammar is the system of rules in a language

that enable us to communicate with and understand others. Grammar Semantics Syntax 19 Semantics Semantics is the set of rules by which we

derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. For example: Semantic rule tells us that adding ed to the word laugh means that it happened in the past. 20 Syntax Syntax consists of the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences. For example:

In English, syntactical rule says that adjectives come before nouns; white house. In Spanish, it is reversed; casa blanca. 21 Identify the level of language acquired Koko the gorilla was trained by Francine Patterson to use sign language. The Gorilla Language Project reports that Koko can use 1000 different signs, and

can understand 2000 words. Koko is now creating statements by blending three to six words. Comprehension? Phonology? Morphology? Syntax? Identify the level of language acquired In 1952, researcheres Hayes and Hayes tried to teach their chimpanzee, named Vickie, to speak the English language. Vickie learned how to make four sounds, and never did

produce anything that sounded much like language. Identify the level of language acquired Alex, an African grey parrot, was trained by Irene Pepperberg. Alex can say 70 words, including nouns, verbs and adjectives. Alex can also identify colors and textures, can use numbers from one to five, and can report if objects are the same or different. Identify the level of language acquired

Herman, Richards, and Woltz (1984) trained dolphings to undestand hand commands. Their dolphins can understand five=sign strings, as well as some rules of language. For instance, their dolphins Phoenix and Akeakamie, understand the order words have to be in to perform a certain command. Identify the level of language acquired Nim Chimpsky, a chimpanzee, was trained by Herbert Terrance to understand sign language. Terrance was skeptical of many former chimp

experiments. Nim learned 125 signs, but Terrance realized that Nim seemed to simply be responding to signs that the researchers prseented rather than understanding their meaning. Animals & Language Do animals have a language? Honey bees communicate by dancing. The dance moves clearly indicate the direction of the nectar. 27

Do Animals Think? Common cognitive skills in humans and apes include the following: William Munoz 1. Concept formation. 2. Insight

3. Problem Solving 4. Culture 5. Mind? African grey parrot assorts red blocks from green balls. 28 Insight Chimpanzees show insightful behavior when solving problems.

Sultan uses sticks to get food. 29 Problem Solving Courtesy of Jennifer Byrne, c/o Richard Byrne, Department of Psychology, University of St. Andrews, Scotland Apes are famous, much like us, for solving problems.

Chimpanzee fishing for ants. 30 Animal Culture Animals display customs and culture that are learned and transmitted over generations. Michael Nichols/ National Geographic Society Copyright Amanda K Coakes

Dolphins using sponges as forging tools. Chimpanzee mother using and teaching a young how to use a stone hammer. 31 Mental States Can animals infer mental states in themselves and others? To some extent. Chimps and orangutans (and dolphins) used mirrors to inspect

themselves when a researcher put paint spots on their faces or bodies. 32 Do Animals Exhibit Language? There is no doubt that animals communicate. Copyright Baus/ Kreslowski

Vervet monkeys, whales and even honey bees communicate with members of their species and other species. Rico (collie) has a 200-word vocabulary 33

The Case of Apes Chimps do not have a vocal apparatus for human-like speech (Hayes & Hayes,1951). Therefore, Gardner and Gardner (1969) used American Sign Language (ASL) to train Washoe, a chimp, who learned 182 signs by the age of 32. 34 Gestured Communication

Animals, like humans, exhibit communication through gestures. It is possible that vocal speech developed from gestures during the course of evolution. 35 Sign Language American Sign Language (ASL) is instrumental in teaching chimpanzees a form of communication.

Paul Fusco/ Magnum Photos When asked, this chimpanzee uses a sign to say it is a baby. 36 Computer Assisted Language Others have shown that bonobo pygmy chimpanzees can develop even greater vocabularies and perhaps semantic nuances in

learning a language (Savage-Rumbaugh, 1991). Kanzi and Panbanish developed vocabulary for hundreds of words and phrases. Copyright of Great Ape Trust of Iowa 37 Criticism 1. Apes acquire their limited vocabularies with a great deal of difficulty, unlike children who develop vocabularies at amazing rates.

2. Chimpanzees can make signs to receive a reward, just as a pigeon who pecks at the key receives a reward. However, pigeons have not learned a language. 3. Chimpanzees use signs meaningfully but lack syntax. 4. Presented with ambiguous information, people tend to see what they want to see. 38 Conclusions

If we say that animals can use meaningful sequences of signs to communicate a capability for language, our understanding would be naive Steven Pinker (1995) concludes, chimps do not develop language. 39 Unit 9: Memory, Thinking, & Language Lesson 3: Language

Lesson Essential Question What is the relationship between cognition and language development? Key Lesson Vocabulary: Chomsky, Inborn language acquisition device; Critical periods; Phonemes; Morphemes; Syntax; Grammar; Semantics; Whorfs Reciprocal

determinism thesis DAILY COMMENTARY: How many languages to do speak? How did you learn to speak? Is language acquisition effortful or automatic? READINGS / Assignments: READ: Myers 410-428 Chomsky Handout

NYT Language Gap Study Piraha handout DO / DUE: Vocab cards Review packet Problem Solving A giant inverted steel pyramid is perfectly balanced on its point. Any movement of the pyramid will cause it to topple over. Underneath the pyramid is a $100 bill.

How would you remove the bill without disturbing the pyramid? Write down your thought process Write down everything you considered doing to solve the problem. Does Language deter thought? In one set of studies, the subjects who were asked to verbalize their thought process solved 30% fewer puzzles.

Language & Thinking Language and thinking intricately intertwine. Rubber Ball/ Almay 46 Language Influences Thinking Linguistic Determinism: Whorf (1956) suggested that language determines the

way we think. For example, he noted that the Hopi people do not have the past tense for verbs. Therefore, the Hopi cannot think readily about the past. 47 Language Influences Thinking When a language provides words for objects or events, we can think about these objects more clearly and remember them. It is easier to think

about two colors with two different names (A) than colors with the same name (B) (zgen, 2004). 48 Word Power Increasing word power pays its dividends. It pays for speakers and deaf individuals who learn sign language. 49

Linguistic Determinism Questioned Although people from Papua New Guinea do not use our words for colors and shapes, they still perceive them as we do (Rosch, 1974). 50 Thinking in Images To a large extent thinking is languagebased. When alone, we may talk to

ourselves. However, we also think in images. We dont think in words, when: 1. When we open the hot water tap. 2. When we are riding our bicycle. 51 Images and Brain Imagining a physical activity activates the same brain regions as when actually performing the activity.

Jean Duffy Decety, September 2003 52 Language and Thinking Traffic runs both ways between language and thinking. 53 Thinking in Shapes

Reading & Reflection First Read: NYT Language Gap Study THEN WRITE (in online notebooks) Based on the NYT article, your understanding of Chomskys theory, and Whorfs concept of reciprocal determinism, evaluate how

educational background of parents and vocabulary use in the home environment influences the ability of children to think creatively.

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