UNIT 4 REVISION Chapter 1 - Populations Define the following words: Ecosystem All the interacting biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) features in a specific area. Population A group of individuals of the same species in a habitat Community The organisms of all species that live in the same area Habitat The place where an organism normally lives Niche All the conditions and resources required for an organism to survive and reproduce (its role) Chapter 1 Investigating Populations List 3 factors to consider when using a quadrat Size of quadrat, the number of quadrats to record, the position of each quadrat How can you get a random sample? Create a grid on the area (lay out 2 long tape measures) and obtain a series of co-ordinates using a random number generator and sample at each of those coordinates. How can we measure abundance? Frequency if a species is in 15 out of 30 quadrats then its frequency is 50%. Percentage Cover estimate the
area within each quadrat that the species covers. Chapter 1 Investigating Populations Explain the mark-release-recapture technique and how you can use it to calculate an estimated population size 1. A set of animals are caught and then marked in some way. 2. Theyre then released back into the community. 3. After a specified length of time, the community is revisited and the same number or individuals is caught again. 4. The number of marked individuals is counted. Estimated pop. = (Total number of individuals in the first sample x size Total number of individuals in the second sample) number of marked individuals recaptured Chapter 1 Population Size Label and explain the stages of the population growth curve: Stable, no growth Slow growth Explain how the following factors affect population size: pH: Affects enzymes. Populations are larger in areas of optimum pH. light: Rapid growth
Slow growth initially the small number of individuals reproduce slowly to build up numbers. Rapid growth the ever-increasing number of individuals continue to reproduce rapidly. Stable state factors limit the size of the population, e.g. food, predation Increasing light intensity increases photosynthesis, meaning faster plant growth and more food for animals. temperature: Affects enzymes. Slow action at low temps, denaturation at high temps. Warm-blooded animals have to spend more energy keeping warm if the temp is too low, so a smaller pop size. water and humidity: If water is scarce then populations are small. Humidity affects transpiration and evaporation. Chapter 1 Competition and Predation What is intraspecific competition? Competition between members of the same species What is interspecific competition? Competition between members of different species Explain the predator-prey graph
When there are higher numbers of prey the predators have more food. This increases the numbers of predators. As there are more predators they eat more prey. This reduces the numbers of prey. With less prey available the predators have less food. This reduces predator numbers. With less predators the prey numbers can increase again. Chapter 1 Human Populations Explain the following factors that affect human population, and how they are calculated: Migration: Immigration individuals join a population from outside Emigration individuals leave a population Birth rate: Affected by economic conditions, cultural and religious backgrounds, social pressures and conditions, birth control, political factors. Birth Rate = number of births per year x 1000 total population in the same year
Use the graphs to help you explain: Stable population: Birth and death rates are in balance. No change in population size. Increasing population: High birth rate and fewer older people. Death rate: Affected by age profile, life expectancy, food supply, safe drinking water, medical care, natural disasters, war. Death Rate = number of deaths per year x 1000 total population in the same year Decreasing population: Lower birth rate and a lower death rate, so more elderly people. Chapter 2 - ATP Why do organisms need energy? Metabolism, movement, active transport, maintenance, repair and division
of cells, production of substances, maintenance of body temperature How does ATP store energy? ATP has 3 phosphate groups. The bonds between these groups are unstable and have a low activation energy. They break easily and when they do, they release energy. How is ATP synthesised? Adding a phosphate to ADP. Via photophosphorylation (in photosynthesis), oxidative phosphorylation (in the electron transport chain) and substratelevel phosphorylation (in glycolysis). Why is ATP a good immediate energy source? It cannot be stored, but is rapidly re-formed. It releases energy in small, manageable amounts. The hydrolysis of ATP is a single reaction, releasing immediate energy. Chapter 3 The Light Dependent Reaction What do plants capture light energy for? 1. Making ATP Chlorophyll absorbs light energy and excites a pair of e -s e-s leave the chlorophyll and are passed along a series of carriers (redox reactions) in the membrane of the thylakoids e-s lose energy at each stage This energy is used to combine ADP + Pi ATP 2. Photolysis of water
Chlorophyll is now short of e-s Water provides replacement e-s from water molecules that are split using light energy 2H2O 4H+ + 4e- + O2 H+ ions are taken up by NADP, which becomes reduced NADP Chapter 3 - The Light Independent Reaction Explain the Calvin Cycle = a product from the light dependent reaction CO2 RuBP ATP ADP + Pi 2x GP Glucose etc. ATP ADP + Pi 2x TP NADP Reduced NADP
Chapter 3 - Factors Affecting Photosynthesis What is a limiting factor? The rate of a process is limited by the factor that is at its least favourable value Limiting factors in photosynthesis? Light intensity CO2 concentration Temperature Chapter 3 - Limiting Factor Graphs What is happening here? High [CO2] High Temp High [CO2] Low Temp Rate of Photosynthesis Low [CO2] Low Temp Light Intensity Chapter 4 - Glycolysis Where does glycolysis take place? In the cytoplasm of cells Describe the process of glycolysis P P Glucose is phosphorylated
(USES 2 ATP) Glucose splits into 2x Triose Phosphate (TP) NAD P P NAD Reduced NAD 2x ADP + Pi 2x ADP + Pi 2x ATP 2x ATP Reduced NAD Hydrogen is removed from TP and given to NAD to form reduced NAD TP is converted into pyruvate. This generates
4x ATP Chapter 4 The Link Reaction What are the products of glycolysis? 2x ATP, 2x reduced NAD, 2x pyruvate Where does the link reaction take place? In the matrix of the mitochondria What is the overall equation for the link reaction? Pyruvate + NAD + CoA acetyl CoA + reduced NAD + CO2 Chapter 4 - The Krebs Cycle Describe the Krebs Cycle 4 carbon molecule Acetyl CoA Combines with a 4C molecule 6 carbon molecule ATP Reduced FAD NAD 2H 2H Reduced
NAD FAD Carbon Dioxide Carbon Dioxide Chapter 4 The Electron Transport Chain Using the diagram, explain the stages of the ETC and how ATP is generated 1 2 3 4 5 6 Chapter 4 Anaerobic Respiration If no oxygen is present which part(s) of respiration can take place? Glycolysis only (only generates small amounts of ATP)
What products does this leave you with? Pyruvate and reduced NAD What is the equation for how plants deal with these products? Pyruvate + reduced NAD Ethanol + CO2 + NAD What is the equation for how animals deal with these products? Pyruvate + reduced NAD Lactate + NAD Chapter 5 Energy and Ecosystems Explain the following terms: Trophic level: Each stage in a food chain Food chain: Showing feeding relationships and transfer of energy Food web: Linking together all the food chains in an area Producer: An organism that manufactures organic substances by photosynthesis Consumer: An organism that obtains its energy by feeding on other organisms Decomposer: An organism that breaks down dead plant/animal matter to release nutrients
Describe how energy enters an ecosystem: Energy from the Sun is trapped by producers. Plants only convert 1-3% of the Suns energy into organic matter. Describe how energy is lost from the food chain: Not all the organism is eaten, some parts cannot be digested easily (e.g. cellulose), loss by excretion, loss by heat from respiration. The efficiency of energy transfers is calculated using the following equation: Calculate the energy efficiency for this example: Energy available after the transfer = 50kJm-2year-1 Energy available before the transfer = 250kJm -2year-1 (50/250) x 100 = 20% Chapter 5 - Pyramids Explain what a pyramid of numbers is: A pyramid drawn with bar lengths proportional to the numbers of organisms present Explain the advantages of using a pyramid of numbers: Can be easy to be accurate in some food chains, simple to construct
Explain the disadvantages of using a pyramid of numbers: No account is taken of size, some food chains are hard to represent accurately (e.g. if millions of insects living on one tree) Explain what a pyramid of biomass is: A pyramid drawn with bar lengths proportional to the mass of plants/animals Explain the advantages of using a pyramid of biomass: More reliable than using numbers, fresh mass is easy to assess Explain the disadvantages of using a pyramid of biomass: To get dry mass the organisms need to be killed and a sample may not be representative of the population, does not show seasonal differences Explain what a pyramid of energy is:
A pyramid drawn with bar lengths proportional to the energy stored in organisms Explain the advantages of using a pyramid of energy: Most accurate representation, much more reliable Explain the disadvantages of using a pyramid of energy: Collecting data for pyramids of energy can be difficult Chapter 5 Agricultural Ecosystems Describe what an agricultural ecosystem is: An ecosystem made up of domesticated animals/plants to produce food for human consumption. Attempts are made to keep energy losses low. Complete the table to show how natural and agricultural ecosystems differ: Input of Energy Natural Agricultural
Solar energy only Solar energy + energy from food Rate of Productivity Lower Higher Amount of Species Diversity More Less Describe what is meant by productivity and give the formula: Amount of genetic diversity within a species More Less Productivity is the rate at which something is produced. Net productivity = gross productivity respiratory losses
Nutrient Recycling Control of Populations Point in Succession Natural recycling of nutrients Natural means e.g. climate, competition Natural climax community Limited recycling of nutrients, fertilisers used Natural means and use of pesticides etc. Artificial community prevented from reaching climax Chapter 5 - Pests What are pests and pesticides? Pests are organisms that compete with humans for food/space.
Pesticides are poisonous chemicals that kill pests. State 4 features of an effective pesticide Specific, biodegradable, cost-effective, will not accumulate What is a biological control? Using predators of a pest to control its numbers. It is specific but slower and the predator may become a pest itself. Explain what an integrated pest-control system is A system that integrate all forms of pest control to try and keep the pest at an acceptable level. It does not eradicate the pest. How does controlling pests affect productivity? Removing pests increases productivity e.g. weeds take nutrients from crops, slowing growth, so removing these increases growth of crops. Chapter 5 Intensive Farming Explain how rearing animals intensively increases the efficiency of energy conservation Movement is restricted so less energy used in muscle contraction The environment is kept warm, so less heat lost from the body Feeding is controlled to give animals the optimum nutrients for growth Predators are kept out so energy is not lost to another organism Selective breeding has produced varieties of animal that are better at converting food eaten into body mass
Chapter 6 The Carbon Cycle Describe the carbon cycle Combustion CO2 in the atmosphere Photosynthesis Plants Respiration Feeding Animals Death Decay Decomposers Decay Prevented Fossil Fuels Chapter 6 The Greenhouse Effect Describe what the greenhouse effect is: A natural process. Some radiation from the Sun reaches the Earths surface and is reflected back as heat. Greenhouse gases trap this heat and keep it close to the Earths surface, keeping us warm.
State the main greenhouse gasses and describe where they come from: CO2 comes from human activities mainly Methane from decomposers or the intestines of primary consumers such as cattle Describe what global warming is: The rising of the Earths average temperature. Human activities have increased the CO2 levels in the atmosphere from 270ppm before the industrial revolution to 370ppm today, trapping more heat. Explain the consequences of global warming: Melting of polar ice caps Rise in sea level, causing flooding Higher temperatures and less rainfall could lead to crops failing and changes in the distribution of plants Greater rainfall and storms in some areas would alter the distribution of plants and animals Life cycles of insects would alter, insects carrying diseases could spread northwards Chapter 6 The Nitrogen Cycle Describe the Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen fixation by freeliving bacteria
N2 in the atmosphere Denitrification Nitrogen fixation by mutualistic bacteria Nitrate ions Absorption Nitrification Plants Feeding Nitrite ions Nitrification Ammonium ions Ammonification Death Decomposers Animals Chapter 6 - Fertilisers Explain why fertilisers are needed in agricultural ecosystems: All plants need mineral ions
from the soil. Repeatedly using the same land for crops will remove these minerals from the soil. Fertilisers can replace them. Explain how natural and artificial fertilisers differ: Explain how fertilisers increase productivity Natural = Dead and decaying remains of organisms and waste materials. Artificial = Mined from rock deposits and blended together to give the best balance of minerals (NPK). Minerals are needed for growth e.g. Nitrogen is needed for proteins. Plants that have sufficient minerals grow quicker, taller and have bigger leaves. Explain Eutrophication: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9. 10. Leaching of fertilisers increases nitrate concentrations in lakes and rivers Nitrate is no longer limiting and so algae and plants grow very quickly Results in an algal bloom across the top of the water This prevents light reaching the lower depths Plants below the surface die Decomposers grow quickly with lots of dead plants for food Decomposers use up the oxygen for respiration Fish etc die due to lack of oxygen With less competition anaerobic organisms increase quickly These anaerobic organisms further decompose dead material releasing toxic wastes, making the water putrid. Chapter 7 - Succession Explain what is meant by the terms: succession: The changes in an ecosystem, over time, of the species that occupy it climax community: Explain what changes occur in the variety of species that occupy an area over time: To start with there are very few species, and only those that can survive the hostile conditions (pioneer species). Gradually more species will colonise the area and conditions improve (plants die and nutrients added to the soil). These will gradually be larger plants and trees until the stable state is
reached. The stable, final, community that exists in a balanced equilibrium conservation: Management of the Earths natural resources in such a way that maximum use can be made of them in the future Explain how you can conserve habitats by managing succession: You can help to keep a community at a stage before the climax community. This will keep different species present that would be lost in the climax community. E.g. the moorland in the UK is kept from becoming deciduous woodland by burning heather and sheep grazing. Chapter 8 - Inheritance Explain what is meant by the following key terms: Genotype: The genetic composition of an organism Phenotype: Monohybrid Crosses. Complete the cross for green and yellow plants. Green is dominant. Both parents are heterozygous. What is the probability of a yellow offspring? The characteristics of an organism (often visible), resulting from its genotype and the environment
G g Allele: One form of a gene Homozygous: G GG Gg When the alleles are the same for a particular gene Heterozygous: When the alleles are different for a particular gene g Gg gg Dominant: An allele that is always expressed in the phenotype Recessive: An allele that is only expressed in the phenotype
when there is another identical allele Probability of yellow offspring = or 25% Chapter 8 Sex Linkage and Co-dominance Sex Linkage What do we mean by sex linkage? Co-dominance What is co-dominance? A gene carried on the X or Y chromosome Both alleles are equally dominant and are both expressed in a phenotype Why are sex-linked diseases more common in males? If recessive, males only need 1 copy of the allele to suffer the disease, females need 2. Complete a cross to show the chances of a child having haemophilia from a female carrier and a normal male. XH X Y H Xh X X H
H XH Y X X H h XhY 25% of children suffer, but 50% of sons suffer An example of co-dominance is in the snapdragon flower, which can be red, white or pink. Complete a cross for a red flower and a pink flower. CR CR CR CRCR CRCR CW CRCW
CRCW 50% of offspring are red, 50% are pink Chapter 8 Multiple Alleles and Hardy-Weinberg Multiple Alleles What are multiple alleles? Hardy-Weinberg What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation? More than 2 possible alleles for a particular gene p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 An example of multiple alleles are blood groups in humans. Alleles = IA, IB, IO. IA and IB are co-dominant whilst IO is recessive to both. Complete a cross to show the offspring of a female with blood group O and a male who is blood group AB. What can it calculate? The frequencies of alleles in a population State the assumptions of H-W No mutations, isolated population, no selection, large population, mating is random. Work out, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation, the allele frequencies of cystic
fibrosis, a recessive condition affecting the lungs. In a population of 15,000 people, 1 person suffers from the disease. IA I O IO II A O IA I O IB II B O IB I O 50% blood group A, 50% blood group B Recessive, so the frequency of tt = 1/15000 So, q2 = 1/15000 = 0.000067 So, q = square root of 0.000067 = 0.0082
p + q = 1.0 So, 1.0 q = p p = 1.0 0.0082 = 0.9918 (This is the frequency of allele T) Chapter 8 Selection and Speciation Explain directional selection What is speciation? Selection that favours individuals at one extreme. Often occurs when environmental conditions change. Phenotypes at one extreme may be more suited to the conditions and so survive and breed more, passing on their genes. Over time the mean will move in the direction of these individuals. Explain stabilising selection The evolution of new species from existing species Explain how geographical isolation leads to speciation. Selection that favours average individuals. Occurs if the environmental conditions are stable. Those individuals closest to the mean survive and breed more, passing on their genes. Phenotypes at the extremes will be eliminated. 1. Populations become separated 2. Therefore they stop interbreeding
3. Selection pressures will be different in different areas 4. Allele frequencies will change in the different populations 5. Over time they become so different that they can no longer interbreed
FRS 123: Technology in Art and Cultural Heritage Devices for Linear Perspective Zahn's Camera Obscura (1685) Zahn's portable camera: built-in lens, screen Dürer's devices (early 1500s) Draftsman's net Artist's glass Dürer's devices (early 1500s) Point plotting device Cigoli's Perspective Machine...
Macbeth is shown a line of kings with Banquo at the end/demands to know the meaning but the witches vanish. Lennox enters/tells Macbeth that Macduff has fled to England/Macbeth sends people to capture his castle and kill his wife and...
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Prior to starting these notes I would do a lesson on WHMIS and lab safety. I will make my slideshow on this available as well. How we Model the Atom. ... Use Atomic Structure Worksheet (in Worksheet Folder) for students...
Purpose. A simplemeasure to predictchemotherapytolerance in elderlypatients would be useful. Weprospectivelytested the association of baseline InstrumentalActivities of Daily Living (IADL) score with ability to complete 4 cycles of first line chemotherapywithout dose reductions or N7 days delay in elderlyovariancancerpatients.
(Uniramia) One pair. Unbranched appendages (Insects have three sections) Jaws. Organism. Group. How do you Know? Spiders and Relatives (Chelicerates. Two Body section. Crustaceans (Crustacea) Two pair antennae. Insects and Relatives (Uniramia) Three body sections.
RADIO ETIQUETTE. Push the button on the side when you want to speak and release when you are finished speaking. Example: Table 12 to Base, over. Base to Table 12, over. Table 12 needs water pouches, over. Base to Table...
In the Reading area, students who make an SAT score of 540 or greater are exempted from placement testing and can go immediately into a college level English courses. Students scoring from 51 to 70 must take just one developmental...
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