Unit 4: Module 16 - public.rcas.org

Unit 4: Module 16 - public.rcas.org

Unit 4: Module 16 1. What occurs when experiences influence our interpretation of data? a) b) c) d) e) Selective attention Transduction Bottom-up processing Top-down processing Signal detection theory

Answer d) Top-down processing 2. What principle states that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a minimum percentage rather than a constant amount? a) b) c) d) e) Absolute threshold Different threshold Signal detection theory

Priming Webers law Answer e) Webers law 3. What do we call conversion of stimulus energies, sights and sounds, into neural impulses? a) b) c) d) e) Transduction

Perception Priming Signal detection theory Threshold Answer a) Transduction 4. Natalia is washing her hands and adjusts the faucet handle until the water feels just slightly hotter than it did before. Natalias adjustment until she feels a difference is an example of a) b) c)

d) e) a subliminal stimulus. an absolute threshold. a difference threshold. signal detection. Webers law. Answer c) a difference threshold. 5.Tyshane went swimming with friends who did not want to get into the pool because the water felt cold. Tyshane jumped in and after a few minutes declared, It was cold when I first got in, but now my body is used to it. Come on in! Tyshanes body became accustomed to the water due to

a) b) c) d) e) perceptual set. absolute threshold. difference threshold. selective attention. sensory adaptation. Answer e) sensory adaptation.

Unit 4: Module 17 1. What do we call a mental disposition that influences or interpretation of a stimulus? a) b) c) d) e) A context effect Perceptual set Extrasensory perception Emotion Motivation

Answer b) Perceptual set 2. Kimberly tells her brother to put on a suit on a warm summer day. Kimberlys brother knows to put on a swimsuit instead of a business suit because of a) b) c) d) e) context. ESP.

precognition. bottom-up processing. clairvoyance. Answer a) context. 3. Which of the following is produced by perceptual set? a) Not noticing that the songs change in a restaurant b) Noticing a difference in weight of a friend from one week to the next c) Moving an arm quickly so that a mosquito flies away d) Surprise at hearing an Oklahoma cowboy speak a British accent e) Not noticing a watch on your wrist as the day goes on Answer

d) Surprise at hearing an Oklahoma cowboy speak a British accent Unit 4: Module 18 1. Lights ____ is the distance from one wave peak to the next. This dimension determines the ____ we experience. a) b) c) d) e) hue; wavelength wavelength; hue

hue; intensity wavelength; intensity intensity; wavelength Answer b) wavelength; hue 2. What do we call the specialized neurons in the occipital lobes visual cortex that respond to particular edges, lines, angles, and movements? a) b) c) d) e)

Rods Cones Foveae Feature detectors Ganglion cells Answer d) Feature detectors 3. Which of the following explains reverse-color afterimages? a) b) c) d) e)

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theory The blind spot Herings opponent-process theory Feature detectors Parallel processing Answer c) Herings opponent-process theory 4. Your best friend decides to paint her room an extremely bright electric blue. Which of the following best fits the physical properties of the colors light waves? a) b)

c) d) e) No wavelength; large amplitude Short wavelength; large amplitude Short wavelength; small amplitude Long wavelength ; large amplitude No wavelength; small amplitude Answer b) Short wavelength; large amplitude 5. What do we call the transparent, protective layer that light passes through as it enters the eye?

a) b) c) d) e) Pupil Iris Cornea Lens Fovea Answer c) Cornea Unit 4: Module 19

1. A teacher used distortion goggles, which shifted the wearers gaze 20 degrees, to demonstrate an altered perception. A student wearing the goggles instantly bumped into numerous desks and chairs while walking around, but chose to wear the goggles for a half hour. After 30 minutes, the student was able to smoothly avoid obstacles, illustrating the concept of a) b) c) d) e) perceptual constancy. visual interception.

sensory restriction. perceptual constancy. binocular cues. Answer a) perceptual constancy. 2. What do we call the illusion of movement that results from two or more stationary, adjacent lights blinking on and off in quick succession? a) b) c) d) e)

Phi phenomenon Perceptual constancy Binocular cues Retinal disparity Depth perception Answer a) Phi phenomenon 3. Bryanna and Charles are in a dancing competition. It is easy for spectators to see them against the dance floor because of a) b) c) d)

e) the visual cliff. the phi phenomenon. color constancy. sensory restriction. figure-ground relationships. Answer e) figure-ground relationships. 4. The view from Narmeens left eye is slightly different from the view from her right eye. This is due to which depth clue? a) b)

c) d) e) Retinal disparity Relative size Linear perspective Relative motion Convergence Answer a) Retinal disparity 5. Bringing order and form to stimuli, which illustrates how the whole differs from the sum of its parts, is called

a) b) c) d) e) grouping. monocular cue. binocular cue. disparity. motion. Answer a) grouping. Unit 4: Module 20

1.What type of hearing loss is due to damage to the mechanism that transmits sound waves to the cochlea? a) b) c) d) e) Sensorineural Window-related Conduction Cochlear Basilar

Answer c) Conduction 2. Pitch depends on which of the following? a) b) c) d) e) Amplitude of a sound wave Number of hair cells stimulated Strength of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve Number of sound waves that reach the ear in a given time Decibels of a sound wave

Answer d) Number of sound waves that reach the ear in a given time 3. Which of the following reflects the notion that pitch is related to the number of impulses travelling up the auditory nerve in a unit of time? a) b) c) d) e) Place theory Frequency theory

Volley principle Sound localization Stereophonic hearing Answer b) Frequency theory 4. The three small bones of the ear are located in the a) b) c) d) e) cochlea.

outer ear. inner ear. middle ear. auditory nerve. Answer d) middle ear. Unit 4: Module 21 1. Sensing the position and movement of individual body parts is an example of which sense? a) b) c)

d) e) Kinesthetic Vestibular Auditory Umami Olfactory Answer a) Kinesthetic 2. Which of the following is the best example of kinesthesia? a) b)

c) d) Awareness of the smell of freshly brewed coffee Ability to feel pressure on your arm Ability to hear a softly ticking clock Ability to calculate where a kicked soccer ball will land from the moment it leaves your foot e) Awareness of the position of your arms when swimming the backstroke Answer e) Awareness of the position of your arms when swimming the backstroke 3. Which of the following is the best example of

sensory interaction? a) Finding that despite its delicious aroma, a weird-looking meal tastes awful b) Finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold c) Finding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infection d) Finding that the cold pool water doesnt feel so cold after a while e) All of these are examples Answer b) Finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold 4. Which of the following is most closely associated with hairlike receptors in the semicircular canals? a)

b) c) d) e) Body position Smell Hearing Pain Touch Answer a) Body position Unit 4: AP Exam Questions

1. What is the purpose of the iris? a) b) c) d) e) To To To To To focus light on the retina

process color allow light into the eye enable night vision detect specific shapes Answer c) To allow light into the eye 2. Neurons that fire in response to specific edges, lines, angles, and movements are called what? a) b) c) d) e)

Rods Cones Ganglion cells Feature detectors Bipolar cells Answer d) Feature detectors 3. Signal detection theory is most closely associated with which perception process? a) b) c) d)

e) Vision Sensory adaptation Absolute thresholds Smell Context effects Answer c) Absolute thresholds 4. Which of the following represents perceptual constancy? a) We recognize the taste of McDonalds food each time we eat it. b) In photos of people, the people almost always are perceived as figure and everything else as ground.

c) We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight to shadow. d) From the time they are very young, most people can recognize the smell of a dentists office. e) The cold water in a lake doesnt seem so cold after you have been swimming in it for a few minutes. Answer c) We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight to shadow. 5. Our tendency to see faces in clouds and other ambiguous stimuli is partly based on what perception principle? a) b)

c) d) e) Selective attention ESP Perceptual set Shape constancy Bottom-up processing Answer c) Perceptual set 6. The process by which rods and cones change electromagnetic energy into neural messages is called what?

a) b) c) d) e) Adaptation Accommodation Parallel processing Transduction Perceptual setting Answer d) Transduction 7. Which of the following is most likely to

influence our memory of a painful event? a) b) c) d) The overall length of the event The intensity of pain at the end of the event The reason for the pain The amount of rest youve had in the 24 hours preceding the event e) The specific part of the body that experiences the pain Answer b) The intensity of pain at the end of the event

8. Frequency theory relates to which element of the hearing process? a) Rate at which the basilar membrane vibrates b) Number of fibers in the auditory nerve c) Point at which the basilar membrane exhibits the most vibration d) Decibel level of sound e) Number of hair cells in each cochlea Answer a) Rate at which the basilar membrane vibrates 9. Which of the following best represents an absolute threshold? a) A guitar player knows that his D string has just gone out of tune. b) A photographer can tell that the natural light available for a

photograph faded slightly. c) Your friend amazes you by correctly identifying unlabeled glasses of Coke and Pepsi. d) A cook can just barely taste the salt she has added to her soup. e) You mom throws out the milk because she says it tastes off. Answer d) A cook can just barely taste the salt she has added to her soup. 10. Which of the following describes a perception process that the Gestalt psychologists would have been interested in? a) b) c) d)

e) Depth perception and how it allows us to survive in the world Why we see an object near us as closer rather than larger How an organized whole is formed out of its component pieces What the smallest units of perception are The similarities between shape and constancy and size constancy Answer c) How an organized whole is formed out of its component pieces 11. Which perception process are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup involved in? a)

b) c) d) e) Processing intense colors Processing information related to our sense of balance Supporting a structural frame to hold the eardrum Transmitting sound waves to the cochlea Holding hair cells that enable hearing Answer d) Transmitting sound waves to the cochlea 12. Which of the following might result from disruption of your vestibular sense?

a) Inability to detect the position of your arm without looking at it b) Loss of the ability to detect bitter tastes c) Dizziness and a loss of balance d) An inability to detect pain e) Loss of color vision Answer c) Dizziness and a loss of balance 13. When we go to the movies, we see smooth continuous motion rather than a series of still images because of which process? a) b) c)

d) e) The phi phenomenon Perceptual set Stroboscopic movement Relative motion Illusory effect Answer c) Stroboscopic movement 14. Two monocular depth cues are most responsible for our ability to know that a jet flying overhead is at an elevation of several miles. One cue is relative size. What is the other?

a) b) c) d) e) Relative motion Retinal disparity Interposition Light and shadow Linear perspective Answer a) Relative motion 15. Which of the following phrases accurately

describes top-down processing? a) b) c) d) The entry level data captured by our various sensory systems The effect that our experiences and expectations have on perception Our tendency to scan a visual field from top to bottom Our inclination to follow a predetermined set of steps to process sound e) The fact that information is processed by the higher regions of the brain before it reaches the lower brain Answer b) The effect that our experiences and expectations have on perception

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