Unit 2: Cells and Systems

Unit 2: Cells and Systems

Unit 2: Cells and Systems Topic 3: The Nervous System Nervous System Overall, the Nervous system responds to Stimuli Which if you remember, responding to the environment is a key factor of life! What kind of stimuli are there?

Nervous System Overall, the Nervous system responds to Stimuli Which if you remember, responding to the environment is a key factor of life! What kind of stimuli are there?

Temperature Light Pressure Sound Body Chemistry Dangers (burning yourself)

Neurons Neurons receive messages from small branches called Dendrites Incoming messages go from the Dendrite to the Cell Body to the Axon Axons send the messages to the following neurons Dendrites. This is partly done through

electrical transmission! Neurons Neurons receive messages from small branches called Dendrites Incoming messages go from the Dendrite to the Cell Body to the Axon Axon

Dendrite Axons send the messages to the following neurons Dendrites. This is partly done through electrical transmission! Cell

Body Neurons Organization of the Nervous System Two main categories 1) Central Nervous System Brain and Spinal cord

2) Peripheral Nervous System Cranial nerves, spinal nerves, peripheral nerves Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Cerebrum Control/reaction to senses Movement

Thinking Cerebellum Balance Medulla Breathing Heart Rate Central Nervous System

Reflexes can happen only using your Spinal Cord, not your brain! After you react, your brain is notified and then you scream in pain, but you hand is already safe! Peripheral Nervous System

The Peripheral Nervous System has two types of neurons 1) Sensory Neurons Carry information from the body to the central nervous system 2) Motor Neurons Carry information from the central nervous system to the body

Peripheral Nervous System Lets divide the Peripheral Nervous System again, sounds like fun right????? 1) Somatic Nervous System You can voluntarily control this For example, You choose to walk forward 2) Automatic Nervous System Your body automatically adjusts without your control

For example, your pupils adjust to light, or your heart rate increases when you exercise You dont have to tell your heart to beat! Peripheral Nervous System Uneven Sense of Touch Your body has certain locations of nervous responsible for vision (eyes), hearing (ears), smell (nose) and taste (tongue)

What about touch? We can feel things everywhere on our bodies. Some places have more touch sensory neurons than others, our hands are much more sensitive than our backs. Cool Fact Some nerves grow in ways that are inconvenient

The RLN nerve, which goes from the larynx to the brain takes a detour and wraps around the aorta first-which does nothing! It is just how nerves first evolved Giraffes take this to the extreme, and have the nerve go all the way down their neck and back, when it could have just gone from the mouth to the brain

Cool Fact We have a neuron (1 cell) that goes from our spine to our big toe! Called the Sciatic Nerve The Liver The Liver is our detoxifying organ

Breaks harmful substances down into less harmful substances to be excreted Breaks Ammonia down into Urea Breaks down Alcohol! The Liver The Liver is our detoxifying organ

Breaks harmful substances down into less harmful substances to be excreted Breaks Ammonia down into Urea Breaks down Alcohol! The Liver The Liver is our detoxifying organ

Breaks harmful substances down into less harmful substances to be excreted Breaks Ammonia down into Urea Breaks down Alcohol! The Kidneys Kidneys are the main organ of excretion

They filter the blood removing unwanted Urea Water Salts Other excess substances

Each drop of blood is filtered 300 times a day! Keep a balance of water in your blood! The Kidneys Cool story bro, but how do they actually work? Nephron

The Kidneys In summary Kidneys filter blood using nephrons They are capillaries! (good for diffusion, remember????) About 1 million per kidney! Waste material leaves the blood and exits a tube in the nephron that leads to the bladder

The Bladder Kidneys connect to the by the Ureter Waste (Urine) goes down Ureter and enters the bladder When the bladder fills up (around 1L!!!) you pee out of your Urethra

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