Ugandan Forestry - Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Ugandan Forestry - Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Ugandan Forestry PRESENTED BY Mukiibi Robert. Introduction Uganda has a total land area of 241,000 km2,out of which 12% or 30,980 km2 is gazetted.

Out of the total protected area, 12,757 km2 are forest reserves under the Forest Department and local governments ,while Game Reserves and National Parks cover 321,000 ha. The combined effect of high economic growth and population growth has a significant effect on the forestry sector. Rural areas support 90% of Ugandas population. The rural and urban population use woodfuel for domestic energy

needs. In urban areas, charcoal is the main source of energy. Fuel wood consumption is estimated at 16.7 million tons annually, while annual charcoal production is estimated at 418,000 tons Forest classification in Uganda The forests in Uganda are divided into two main categories.

(i) Natural forests including: Savanna Woodlands Tropical rain forests (ii) Planted forests 1. Savanna, which is composed of scattered trees within grasslands, is characterized by the

strong influence of herbivores and fires. Savanna is the most abundant kind of vegetation in Uganda. Fig. below shows a forest/savanna mosaic at medium altitudes. Black crowns are evergreen; shaded ones drop their leaves at irregular intervals; unshaded ones are deciduous. 2.Woodland is defined as open forest with "small or medium sized trees with the crowns more or less touching, the canopy remaining light; the grass stratum sometimes sparse, often mixed with other herbaceous or suffrutescent vegetation" (LANGDALE-BROWN et al., 1964). Woodland may be a climax vegetation or a stage of succession towards forest depending on its

environment 3.The tropical high forest in Uganda consists mainly of lowland evergreen or semi-deciduous rain forests with a canopy up to 50m and with several storeys of trees. As subtype of this vegetation type, the Cynometra zone at 700-1,200m in the lowest parts of Uganda covers most of Uganda's potential forest zone Tree species include: Albizia, Antiaris, Blighia, Canarium schweinfurthii, Celtis

africana, C. durandii, Entandrophragma, Fagara, Lovoa, Majidea and Pycnanthus, richiliaprieuriana, Khaya anthotheca, Khaya anthotheca, Celtis mildbraedii, and Cynometra alexandri, Allophyllus macrobotrys and Cassipourea ruwenzorensis

Mabira Forest Planted Forests The first plantation was started in 1908 using indigenous species, Markhamia platycalyx, Melicea excelsa and Entandrophragma spp. Plantations of exotic coniferous species were started in 1940 to meet the future demand for timber.

Wood production plantations were established at an accelerated rate after 1948 with emphasis on tropical Pinus spp. and Cupressus spp. Planting reached a peak in the early 1970s and then came to a standstill in 1978. Meanwhile, the private sector established non-industrial plantations for products such as fuelwood and poles. As a result, plantations are now very important for the supply of both industrial and non-industrial wood. Moreover, they are a very

important element in reducing the pressure on fragile natural forests Species composition Of planted forests Coniferous species and Eucalyptus spp. each comprise about 50 percent of the plantation area. (i)Coniferous species

Cupressus spp. and Pinus spp. are planted for timber and also reduce pressure on the natural forests. One third of the coniferous plantations are Cupressus spp. and the rest are Pinus spp. (ii)Eucalyptus species Eucalyptus spp. are planted for the production of transmission poles, building construction timbers and fuelwood. Fuelwood is the most important product, both for domestic

energy as well as for some agricultural uses such as tobacco curing or tea production Species Notes Eucalyptus grandis

First introduced around 1912. Commonly planted for fuel wood and poles and important source of income for small farmers since it is easy to raise from seed, coppices vigorously when cut with rotations of 8-15 years. Cool moist, cool wet areas (18-220) and Rainfall:1 250-1 500 mm.

Pinus caribaea It copes well with shallower soils on lower elevation sites and performs well on fairly dry sites. P.c. var. hondurensis is easy to raise from improved seed for commercial planting with rotations of 18-25 years Warm wet, hot wet conditions (22-240).

Rainfall: >1 250 mm. Suitable in Uganda Central and Mid Eastern, Western and Midwest, West Nile

Species Notes Maesopsis eminii Suitable in

Uganda Lake shore basins Fast growing indigenous species for timber production and general purpose hardwood timber although not easy to grow in plantations. Prefers moderately fertile, deep and well drained soils for it is a natural pioneer species in the Tropical

High Forest - around Lake Victoria's shore, Albertine Rift. Cool, moist, wet and or slightly warm (18-240) with rainfall: <1 200 mm Clonal Eucalyptus Hybrid clones of E. grandis x E. camuldulensis (GC) and E. grandis x E. urophylla (GU) were imported

from South Africa in 2002/2003, trial plots of provenances were established in different parts of the country. The clones have shown tremendous potential to expand the plantable area for eucalypts in Uganda. For drier and hotter sites. Central, Western,

Northern, Southern, West Nile Pinus trees in Uganda Pinus

Eucalyptus Products from Forests Timber used for building, furniture More products

Poles for building Wood for fuel Artfacts

Local herbal medicines References 53/en/ n/uga/

php's_Mabira_ Forest

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