Types of Intersections of Road and Design Parameters of ...
TYPES OF INTERSECTIONS OF ROAD AND DESIGN PARAMETERS OF INTERSECTION Intersection of road Intersection is an area shared by two or more
roads. This area is designated for the vehicles to turn to different directions to reach their desired destinations. This is because vehicles moving in different direction want to occupy same space at the same
time Types There are two main types of intersection of roads .
Grade-separated intersections or interchanges At-grade intersections . Grade Seperated intersection Grade separated intersection or
interchanges It is a bridge that eliminates crossing conflicts at intersections by vertical separation of roadways in space. Route transfer at grade separations is accommodated by interchange facilities consisting of ramps. The interchange configurations are designed in such a
way to accommodate economically the traffic requirements of flow, operation on the crossing facilities, physical requirements of the topography, adjoining land use, right-of-way and direction of movements. Grade separated intersection or
interchanges Objective The ultimate objective of grade separated intersections is to eliminate all grade crossing conflicts and to accommodate other intersecting maneuvers by merging, diverging and weaving at low relative speed.
Major Interchanges Underpass Overpass Trumpet Interchange Diamond Interchange
Cloverleaf Interchange Partial Cloverleaf Interchange Directional Interchange Underpass An underpass or a tunnel is an underground passageway,
completely enclosed except for openings for ingress and egress, commonly at each end. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic . Underpass
Overpass An overpass also known as a flyover, is a bridge, road, railway or similar structure that crosses over another road or railway. A pedestrian overpass allows pedestrians safe crossing
over busy roads without impacting traffic. Overpass Trumpet interchanges Trumpet interchanges have been used where one
highway terminates at another highway. These involve at least one loop ramp connecting traffic either entering or leaving the terminating expressway with the far lanes of the continuous highway. The principal advantages are low construction cost and are useful for highways as well as toll roads.
Trumpet interchanges Diamond interchange A diamond interchange is a common type of road junction, used where a freeway crosses a minor road.
The diamond interchange uses less space than most types of freeway interchange, and avoids the interweaving traffic flows that occur in interchanges such as the cloverleaf. Diamond interchanges are most effective in areas where traffic is light.
Diamond interchange Cloverleaf interchange A cloverleaf interchange is a two-level interchange in which left turns are handled by ramp roads .
Cloverleaf interchange Partial cloverleaf interchange Partial clover leaf is a modification that combines some elements of a diamond interchange with one or more
loops of a cloverleaf to eliminate only the more critical turning conflicts. It provides more acceleration and deceleration space on the freeway. Partial cloverleaf interchange
Directional interchange A Directional interchange provides direct paths for left turns. These interchanges contain ramps for one or more direct or semi direct left turning movements.
Interchanges of two freeways or interchanges with one or more very heavy turning movements usually warrant direct ramps, which have higher speeds of operation and higher capacities, compared to loop ramps. Directional interchange
At Grade Intersections At grade intersections At-grade intersections in which all the exchanges between the roads take place on the same plane.
These are of two main types: Standard at- grade intersections Round about at-grade intersections. Most intersections have three or four legs, but multi-leg intersections (fiveand even six-leg intersections) are not
unusual. Simple intersections Simple intersections maintain the streets typical crosssection and number of lanes throughout the intersection, on both the major and minor streets. Simple intersections are best-suited to locations where
auxiliary (turning) lanes are not needed to achieve the desired level-of-service Simple intersections Channelized intersections
Vehicles approaching an intersection are directed to definite paths by islands, marking etc. and this method of control is called channelization. Channelized intersection provides more safety and efficiency. It reduces the number of possible conflicts by reducing
the area of conflicts available in the carriageway. If no channelizing is provided the driver will have less tendency to reduce the speed while entering the intersection from the carriageway. Channelized intersections
Roundabout intersections A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island. It provides maximum safety in all types of intersections .
Roundabout intersections Design parameters of intersections
Motor Vehicles Design Vehicle The largest type of motor vehicle that is normally expected to be accommodated through the intersection. At intersections, the most important attribute of design vehicles is their turning radius, which in turn influences the pavement
corner radius and therefore the size of the intersection. Lane width, another feature related to the design vehicle, has some impact on intersection design . The design vehicle appropriate for most types of transit service is the City-Bus as defined by AASHTO.
Levels of intersection control Levels of intersection control Passive control No control Traffic signs
Traffic signs plus marking . Levels of intersection control Semi control Channelization Traffic rotaries
Active control Traffic signals Grade separated intersections
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