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MIGRATION Introduction: Net In-Migration: # of immigrants greater than # of emigrants Net Out-Migration: # of emigrants greater than # of immigrants Worldwide # of migrants has increased historically as travel has improved

Immigrants from LDCs form an increasingly large proportion of many MDCs population Migration: Forced or Voluntary? Forced: no choice but to leave because of dire political, economic, social, or environmental causes (ex: African slave trade, Trail of Tears)

A refugee is. Any person who is outside any country of such persons nationality . . who is unable or unwilling to return to, and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country . . . because of persecution or a well-founded fear of persecution . . . on account of: race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion. Refugees. Refugees forced out or leave b/c fear of

persecution or death No home until another country allows entry Often live in camps/tents Largest international groups from Palestine and Afghanistan Largest internal groups from Sudan and Angola (decades long civil wars) Difficult to discern between refugees and poor immigrants coming for econ reasons (ex: Cubans got special status and free pass; Haitians didnt) Refugees World

Refugee Survey estimates more than 13 million worldwide Largest number in Middle East and North Africa (Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Somalia, etc. ) Options? 1.) voluntary repatriation, 2.) long-term in refugee camp, 3.) resettlement in other country United States takes in largest number of refugees worldwide Distance of Migration International Migration: to new

country Internal Migration: stay in country (much more common. Can be interregional or intraregional Step Migration: series of moves in same direction Transhumance: seasonal migration ex: herders move livestock from summer to winter pasture pastoral nomadism.other examples? Wilbur Zelinskys Migration Transition Says

migrants come mostly from stage 2 of demographic transition model (periphery or Semi-Periphery) Move to MDCs for new job, education, or tech opportunities Most internal migration in Stage 3 and 4 countries is from city to suburbs Most internal migration in Stage 2 countries is rural to urban Ravensteins Characteristics of Migrants Most

people migrate for economic reasons Most move short distance (stay within own country) Most plan to return home (Cuban grandmother with a packed suitcase) Long distance migrants to other countries head to major cities of econ activity Historically most long distance migrants are male, and single from age 25-39 Where Do Migrants Go? From LDCs to MDCs

Global Patterns Asia, Latin America, Africa = net outmigration North America, Europe, Oceania = net inmigration U.S. = country with the most What is an American? The Easy Answer: A citizen of the United States The Hard Question:

What characteristics, values, beliefs, rights and/or obligations are essential to the identity of citizens of the United States? 10 U. S. Immigration Patterns 3 historic eras.. Phase One: Initial Settlement 1500s-late 1800s

From NW Europe and Africa Scotland, Ireland, Germany, GB From Europe, Germany has provided largest # of immigrants to U.S. Mexico recently passed Germany as greatest supplier in history of immigrants to America Historical Overview of U.S. Immigration Controls 1776-1875 Open Frontier = Open Border

12 3 historic eras contd Phase Two: Turn of 20th C 1920ish From SE Europe Italy, Poland, Russia, Romania, Greece Come through Ellis Island Phase Three: 1950-Today From LA and Asia Asia highest from late 1970s-late 1980s (China, Philippines, Vietnam, India) Last 20 yrs LA = greatest supplier, and Mexico greatest supplier from LA

Destination of Immigrants in US CA, NY, FL, TX: of all immigrants go to these 4 states LA more likely in CA and TX, Cubans more likely in FL, i.e. distance Immigration = fireball issue in these states because big drain on state budgets (AZ minutemen) Chain Migration: people go to a specific location because relatives or people from

same area are therecreates enclaves like Little Italy, Chinatown, etc. Obstacles Migrants Face Historically, biggest obstacle was long, expensive journey Today, biggest obstacles Getting permission to enter $$ to travel Hostile attitudes once you are there

Often met with suspicion, fear, hostility More different you are perceived to be, more hostility you face Big anti-immigration protests in US, W Europe, Kuwait How long does it take to fully assimilate??? Immigration Policies of Host Countries: quotas V. guest worker passes Quotas: used in U.S. Historically used quotas to favor Europe Today has global quota of 620,000 with no

more than 7% from one country # of applicants far exceeds quotas so Congress sets preferences for Unify families (typical wait for spouse is 5 yrs) Skilled workers/professionals (LDCs accuse U.S. of brain drain, taking best and brightest) Quotas do not apply to refugees special status Quota Preferences Family

Diversity Employment 17 Quotas V. Guest worker passes Temporary Guest Worker Passes: Used in W. Europe and Kuwait Take low status, low pay, low skill jobs (low pay

by MDC standards, but good $$ for workers from LDC Decreases LDC unemployment rate Guest workers send $$ back to home country good for economy Most European guest workers from N. Africa, Middle East, Eastern Europe, and Asia Problem do not become citizens U.S. unique to have birth citizenship status

Internal Migration 3 internal patterns in US 1.) Late 19th/early 20th C = rural to urban Motivation = jobs Ex: Great Migration of African Americans from rural areas of South to N. cities Internal Migration contd 2.)

1950-1970 = urban to suburban Motivation lifestyleyard, garage, better schools, bigger houses, etc. Best of both worlds, close to amenities and jobs of city but enjoy lifestyle of suburbs Suburbs more homogenous (often divided racially, by socioeconomic status, etc.) Internal Migration contd

3.) 1975-today = from NE to South and Southwest White, middle class Americans leaving older NE Rust Belt (OH, Michigan, Penn) for Sun Belt New South FL, GA, NC, TN has grown faster than other regions recently. Offers more job opportunites, nice climate, affordable lifestyle. Atlanta, Charlotte, Tampa, Nashville have all exploded in last 25 yrs South West LA, San Diego, Houston, Phoenix

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