Portraits in Practice Software Engineering Research & Development Challenges at Siemens Juergen Kazmeier Brian Berenbach Dan Paulish Marlon Vieira Page 1 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Siemens has a long tradition of technological innovations. Page 2 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research The rate of innovations is increasing. Share of sales
with products 5 years and younger 6 to 10 years old 55% 48% 75% 30% 29% 19% 22%
16% more than 10 years old 1980 Page 3 1985 6% 2005 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Siemens is one of the worlds largest software companies. Page 4
Siemens has more than 30,000 software developers. 60% of Siemens business is based on software. Siemens spends more than 3 billion euros per year on software development. Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research But, Siemens is not recognized as a software company, since most of our software is embedded. Examples:
Automation devices Industrial control systems Automotive components Communication systems Rail systems Medical devices Page 5 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Siemens at a Glance Information and Communications Automation and Control
Power Transportation Medical Lighting Communications Automation and Drives Power Generation Transportation Systems
Medical Solutions Sylvania Siemens Business Services Industrial Solutions and Services Power Transmission and Distribution Siemens VDO Automotive
Annual Worldwide Sales Siemens Building Technologies Net Income: $2.8B Worlds 21st largest company Siemens AG: Worldwide figures for fiscal 2005 1 (U.S. GAAP2) 1 Fiscal Year October 1 September 30 2 Average annual exchange rate for FY 2005: 1.00 =$1.273 Page 6 47,000 employees
$98.2 billion $6.6B dedicated to global R&D 75% of total sales are from products and services developed in the last five years Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Global presence of Research and Development More than 47,000 R&D employees at 150 locations Page 7 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Corporate Technology: About 2,300 Researchers and Developers Worldwide
Berlin St. Petersburg Moscow Romsey (RMR) Princeton Siemens Corporate Technology Beijing A Global Network Shanghai
Berkeley Tokyo Bangalore Erlangen Munich Page 8 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Much of our research is done in collaboration with universities. Page 9 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
Software Engineering Challenges at Siemens Functionality previously realized in electrical or electro-mechanical systems is now being realized in software => bigger, more complex, & more software projects (hundreds of developers, millions of lines of code). Meeting functional and non-functional requirements is important to business success => restricted hardware resources, real-time performance, safety critical applications. Multisite development projects. High quality (i.e., thoroughly tested, reliable) software is important to business success. Our software engineering methods and technologies must address the increasing scale and complexity of emerging software systems. Page 10 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
There are three major levers for optimizing software development. Processes Simplification Standardization Stabilization Synergies Architecture Platforms Structure Offshoring/ Outsourcing Site strategy Page 11 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
We address software engineering challenges in R&D programs. Todays Portraits in Practice focus: Requirements Engineering, Architecture Practices, Testing Processes & Project Management Requirements Engineering Assess and improve software development processes and project management Process From business needs to software design faster, with better quality and transparency for project control and Assessment & oversight Improvement
Requirements Engineering (Brian) Project Management SCR SE Quality Engineering Ensure high quality Testing software based (Marlon) systems by Testing, Code Quality Management and Performance Engineering
System & Software Quality Page 12 Architecture Practices, GSD (Dan) SW Platform Technologies Building coherent, interoperable and future-proof systems Architecture & Platform Technologies Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Thank you! Contact:
Juergen Kazmeier Department Head, Software & Systems Engineering [email protected] Phone +1 (609) 734-3610 Page 13 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Requirements Engineering @ Siemens Brian Berenbach [email protected] Page 14 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research The Challenge
To provide effective requirements development and management processes for a set of extraordinarily disparate Siemens companies. To raise the level of expertise in requirements engineering throughout Siemens. Page 15 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research For Example Siemens Automotive Chassis & Car body Fleet Management Infotainment Interior Marine Solutions
Special OEM Solutions Power Train Public Transport Solutions Replacement Parts Page 16 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Customers Provide the Requirements Stakeholder requests from customers in PDF documents & Excel tables Manual Manual Processes Processes
Difficulty Managing Change! Page 17 Requirements Requirements Database Database Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Requirements as State Tables Again, Difficulty Managing Change! Page 18 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
Customer Siemens Page 19 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Unique OEM Problems Customers deliver their requests in varying media Everything is priority 1 Customers feel under no obligation to limit change requests Change requests come in the form of new documents (PDF) and state tables (Excel) with no change matrix. How do you manage change and traces? Requests may be vague because customers expect that Siemens will figure it out. Page 20 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
Providing Integrated Medical Solutions Leads to Many Requirement Dependencies Page 21 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research V Model for Traceability Impact analysis System requirements Subsystem requirements
Component requirements Derivation analysis Stakeholder requirements Are all requirements covered by the layer below? Acceptance test plan Derivation analysis Impact analysis
System test plan Integration test plan Component test plan Are all requirements covered by tests? Page 22 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research V Model leads to tag based tracing Page 23
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Tag based training has issues No rationale for traces Difficult to cluster traces Effort rises geometrically with project size Difficulty managing cascading or crosscutting changes Page 24 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Companies such as Siemens Building Technology build products with distributed (worldwide) stakeholders and development teams. Page 25
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research How to capture functional and non-functional requirements? Desired Single Customer View but Multiple Regions Multiple Business Units Everything must plug and play TOGETHER Page 26 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Global Challenges for Siemens Conversion of products to product lines Capturing requirements across regions and across business units
Raising the RE skill level of staff world-wide Page 27 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Challenges One size does NOT fit all! Effectively Controlling Change Managing Scale Managing Customers Page 28 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research and Some Possible Solutions Traceability
Dynamic Tracing Rich Traces New Modeling Languages Complexity, Scale (>10K Requirements) RE Skills Model-Driven RE Advanced Tools. Basic RE Courses Skill Certification Page 29 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
Thank you! Contact: Brian Berenbach RE Center of Competence Head [email protected] Phone +1 (609) 734-3395 Page 30 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Methods & Processes for Global Software Development Dan Paulish [email protected] Page 31
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Agenda Motivation for Global Software Development (GSD) Challenges An Approach Lessons Learned Open Issues and Research Questions Page 32 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Global Software Development (GSD): Motivation Lower development costs Low-wage countries
Capitalizing on a pool of trained workforce Quest for talent Increased output, reduced time Improve time-to-market Round-the-clock development Original motivation was reduced development cost, but there are other reasons for GSD. Market proximity Specific local expertise Market acquisition effort Governmental policies and incentives Page 33
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research But, Global Software Development is Difficult. Physical distance Time Difference: 11.5 hours Page 34 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Global Software Development Siemens has more than 15 years experience developing software products globally. Today, most Siemens business groups develop software in low-cost countries. Organization and process model for global development divides responsibility between a central headquarters organization & remote
development teams. Requirements Domain expertise Management & Process expertise Software Technology engineering expertise expertise Architecture
& design Supplier Managers Software engineering expertise Development experience Development plan Acceptance tests Central team Verified by
Remote development teams Component requirements Component design Integrated by Verified by Page 35 Code Tests Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Global Studio Project (GSP) Experimental global software development project using university student teams and researchers. Shadows real Siemens global development project, process, & organization.
Document processes, best practices, and understanding of how to successfully execute global projects. University of Limerick, Harvard Business School, Ireland USA Carnegie Mellon University, Technical University of USA Munich, Germany Siemens Corporate Research, USA Monmouth University, USA Pontific al Catholic University of Rio de Sul, Brazil
Page 36 International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore, India Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research GSP Research Goals Identify and document best (and worst) practices for global software development. Identify the prerequisites for successful global software development. Test a global software development reference process. Determine artifacts for commissioning a remote development team. Identify communications necessary for effective global development.
Page 37 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Social Network Analysis (SNA) Affiliations (Sites) SCR Central Team Tech. Univ. Munich CMU Sapphire IIITB Monmouth #5 Monmouth Codicons Monmouth TCT Limerick ArdnaCroise Roles Developer
Team Leader Function Manager Remote Supp. Manager Central Supp. Manager Executive Page 38 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Some Lessons Learned Amount of Required Communications Cultural Differences among Teams Start-up Time for Remote Teams Supplier Managers as the interface to Remote Teams Team Size Agility
Page 39 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Open Issues and Research Questions 1. Given that the technical artifacts that are delivered to the remote component development teams are not adequate in specifying the precise work to be done, in what ways are they deficient? 2. What strategies do the remote teams employ to compensate for the deficiencies found in the received technical artifacts? 3. What are the early warning signs that an issue is imminent? Can communication patterns, for example, between the central and remote teams be used to predict future component integration problems? Page 40
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Thank you! Contact: Dan Paulish Distinguished Member of Technical Staff [email protected] Phone +1 (609) 734-6579 Page 41 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Issues and Best Practices in Testing Automation - An Industrial View - Marlon E. Vieira [email protected]
Page 42 Copyright 2007. All rights reserved. Copyright 2007 Siemens Siemens AG Corporate Research Agenda Motivation and Some Challenges Observations on Automation of Testing for Diverse Siemens Projects Some Observable Best Practices
Our Research Focus Suggestions on Research Topics Final Comments Page 43 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Automation of Testing: Motivation Motivation Pressure to release software to the market (with quality and on time) Some tests cannot be run without automation Test teams have time to address bigger test issues Improve tester job satisfaction
Page 44 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Automation of Testing: Some Challenges to Adopt It in Practice Some Challenges Global Development Investment in the automation itself (ROI calculation) Testers with development skills Industrial scale solutions Page 45 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
Automation of Testing: Observations (Diverse Siemens Projects) The test process and its automation in practice (Tools) Plan plantests test Design tests Test Management Tools MBT Tools Unit High * Page 46 Component
Medium * * Automation level (usage) Execute tests Analyze results Capture-Replay Test Analysis Tools Simulators/emulators Custom Frameworks Integration Medium *
Defect Classification Metrics Analysis Validation Low * Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Other Observations: Best Practices Observable Best Practices Dealing with testing automation as a software development process Designing tests first before deciding to automate Test creation (or generation)
separated from execution Applying an incremental approach Start small and grow - Provide frameworks (libraries) and exercise tests with different data Not everything is automated (allow exploratory tests) Page 47 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Other Observations: Emerging Strategies Emerging Industrial Strategies Test-driven development (Unit Testing Frameworks) Model-based testing Keyword-driven automation
Page 48 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Our Research Focus on Automation of Testing Model Based Testing Test case generation based on UML Analysis Models UML 2.0 Models Use Case, Activity, Sequence and Statechart diagrams U2TP (UML 2 Testing Profile) Data driven test case generation Category-Partition Method Architectural issues on flexible/robust testing frameworks Customizable framework to execute tests in a specific domain Page 49
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Suggestions for Research: Improvements for Industrial Scale Problems Testability Design changes (dynamic) Different environments Failure treatment (restart and remote test execution) Visibility and Control (stimulus and result verification) Event-Triggered Real-time Systems Non-deterministic execution orders Impact of the execution environment Page 50
Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Final Comments Automation of Testing must fit within project and organizational context. The industrial automation approach needs to be affordable. 1. Usable and Scalable 2. Allow early results 3. Easy Evolution A broad range of academic research is currently being used in the software industry. Examples: Assertions Model-Based Testing
Model Checking Page 51 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research Thank you! Contact: Marlon Vieira Program Manager, Software Testing [email protected] Phone +1 (609) 734-3313 Page 52 Copyright 2007 Siemens Corporate Research
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