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Drawing the Line JAMES RACHELS Nutrition Humans require proper nutrition Eating meat is necessary for a healthy human diet So, humans ought to eat meat (and consequently kill animals)

HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF VEGETARIANISM Vegetarian diets offer a number of advantages, including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein and higher levels of carbohydrates, fiber, magnesium, boron, folate, antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and phytochemicals

Some vegan diets may have lower levels for vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, zinc, and occasionally riboflavin Vegatarian diets (Relevant Nutrients: Protein, Zinc, Iron, Calcium, Vitamin D, Riboflavin, B-12, Fatty Acids, Iodine, Vitamin A For more see: ADA Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets: http://www.eatright.org/About/Content.aspx?id=8409

Justify our conduct of eating meat, hunting, etc. Need a distinction of beings that are worth of direct moral consideration See that in defining an animal for legal purposes warm-blooded

Having moral standing is matter of being human Objection: what it is about being a human that gives us this special status Biological categories do not e.g. brain size, opposable thumbs, or the ability to walk upright Does not tell us what it is about being human that deserves special status bio categories are irrelevant

Self-consciousness, autonomy, rationality E.g. Aristotle, Kant Having moral standing is the same as being a moral agent You have moral standing if you have the capacity for mroal judgment

and action E.g. contractarians 0 justice is a matter of keeping ones contract Sentience capacity to suffer, feel pain Just distinguishing is not enough We can provide a biological distinguishing feature Members of homo-sapiens e.g. having opposable thumbs

How do we get a feature which is relevant to morality? Consider other examples of moral treatment Why might one be rejected from a choir, and someone else not Why might one be rejected from the NBA; a someone else not Doris promoted; someone else not Charles congradulated for marriage; someone else not Autonomy

Humans are rational, autonomous agents who can guide their own conduct according to their desires and their conceptions of how they ought to live A child is not fully rational, autonomous So, the child we are allowed to control and direct, whereas another human we are not

Autonomy is a good explanation why we treat people differently (and rightly so) Self-consciousness Moral Agency Ability to Feel pain

There is no characteristic, or reasonbl small set of characteristcs, that ssets some creatures apart from oth There isnt a small group of characteristics To whom is it appropriat eto direct fundamental moral consideration?

To any individual who has any of the indefinitely long list of characteristics that constitute morally goodreasons why he or she should or should not be treated in any of the various ways in which invidiauls may be treated

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