Thermochemistry: Chpt. 10 - Warren County Public Schools

Thermochemistry: Chpt. 10 - Warren County Public Schools

Chem II: 10/15 Objectives: Complete Midterm Make-up problems Assess Redox Titration Lab Review Thermochemistry Concepts Homework: Thermochemistry Worksheet Redox Titration Lab

http://www.webassign.net Redox Titration Lab 5H2O2 + 2KMnO4 +3H2(SO4) 2Mn(SO4) +K2(SO4) + 5 O2+ 8H2O Chem II: 10/15 Due: Corrections to Titration Lab Objectives: Review Thermochemistry Concepts

Homework: Calorimetry Lab: Read and complete pre-lab qts. Thermochemistry 1. What is thermochemistry? 2. Determine which energy diagram is associated with each example below: a. Endothermic change b. Exothermic change

c. Ice cream melting d. Dew condensing on grass e. Combustion of fossil fuels: CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2 f. Photosynthesis Primary Phase Changes Energy Diagrams Sublimation

en.wikipedia.org chemistryjournal104dianegan8.blogspot.com Deposition www2.volstate.edu Thermochemistry

Study of energy changes between matter during a physical or chemical change. Energy changes can be measured two ways: - the ability to do work on an object - the transfer of heat between objects What are the two types of energy? -Potential Energy= stored energy, energy in chemical bonds -Kinetic Energy = energy of motion, particle movement

Heat Energy Heat Energy: Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures. Heat energy is also called kinetic energy. Units for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal) Energy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter. How does heat energy flow between objects of

different temperatures? -Always from hot to cold Heat Energy Flow Energy flows between: The System: The matter you are studying/measuring. The Surrounding : The matter (environment) around the system.

Energy Processes: Endothermic Process: When more heat is absorbed by the system. Exothermic Process: When more heat is released by the system. Energy Diagrams Thermochemistry: Chpt. 10

1. What is thermochemistry? 2. Determine which energy diagram is associated with each example below: a. Endothermic change b. Exothermic change c. Ice cream melting d. Dew condensing on grass e. Combustion of fossil fuels: CH4 + O2 ---> H2O + CO2 f. Photosynthesis

Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter: Matter undergoes changes, but the atoms are conserved. Energy: Energy is also conserved during changes. If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must

decrease in energy by the same amount. 1st Law of Thermodynamics Energy Changes: Thermometer Energy changes between the system and its surroundings can be measured using a thermometer. (Energy changes = Temperature changes) Temp. change indicates a change in speed of particles of system or surroundings.

Primary unit of measurement by scientists: Celsius (oC) and Kelvin (K) scales Thermometers Visionlearning.com K = oC + 273 Thermochemistry

The amount of energy transferred between matter depends upon the ..? - chemical make-up of the matter - the mass of the matter - temperature difference between the matter Chem II: 10/17 Due: Corrections to Titration Lab (last day) Midterm Make-up (last day)

Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can calculate and analyze energy calculations during changes with matter. Homework: Calorimetry Lab: Bring junk food/aluminum can (12oz.) Bell Ringer: Thermochemistry

1. What is thermochemistry? 2. Determine if the following changes represent an endothermic or exothermic proccess. a. making popsicles b. evaporating water c. sublimation of carbon dioxide d. Sb + I2 + energy --------> SbI3 e. PCl3 + Cl2 ----------> PCl5 + energy 3. What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics? 4. Is calorie, a unit of energy, the same calorie found in food?

5. What is specific heat capacity? Energy Diagrams Conservation of Matter and Energy Matter: Matter undergoes changes, but the atoms are conserved. Energy:

Energy is also conserved during changes. If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount. 1st Law of Thermodynamics Heat Energy

Heat Energy: Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures. Heat energy is also called kinetic energy. Units for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal) Energy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter. How does heat energy flow between objects of different temperatures? -Always from hot to cold

Specific Heat Capacity Specific Heat Capacity (c ): The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a one gram sample one Celsius degree (oC) or one Kelvin (K). Specific Heats of Common Substances Substances Specific Heat

J/g* 0C Specific Heat cal/g*oC water 4.18 1.00

Grain alcohol 2.4 0.58 ice 2.1

0.50 steam 1.7 .40 aluminum

0.90 0.21 silver 0.24 0.057

mercury 0.14 0.033 Specific Heat Calculations The temperature of a 95.4 gram piece of copper

increases from 25.0oC to 48.0oC when the copper absorbs 849 Joules of heat. What is the specific heat of copper? (well go over in class) Chem II: 10/18 Infinite Campus Update: Chemistry Midterm Make-ups Hydrogen Peroxide Titration Lab Corrections Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and

exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can calculate and analyze energy calculations during changes with matter. Homework: Calorimetry Lab: Post Lab Questions Thermochemistry Applications Thermochemistry Quiz 1.

2. 3. a. What is the 1st Law of Thermodynamics What is calorimetry? Classify each as either endothermic or exothermic. CaO (s) + H2O (l) ----> Ca(OH)2 (s) + 65.2 kJ b. water condensing

c. Which of the following energy diagrams represent the following change: 4. What is specific heat capacity of matter? Calorimetry Food Lab Purpose: To indirectly determine the Calorie content in specific snack foods. Pre-Lab: Read background and complete pre-lab questions.

Chem II: 10/21 Infinite Campus Update: Chemistry Midterm Make-ups Hydrogen Peroxide Titration Lab Corrections Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can calculate and analyze energy calculations during changes with matter. (Calorimetry Food Lab)

Thermochemistry Worksheet-Key 6. Q = 6,300 J 7. Q = -15,000 J= -20,000 J (sig. figs.) 8. a. Q water = 336,000 J = 300,000 J b. Q Cu saucepan = 9,600 J = 10,000 J 9. Q = 5,850J = 6,000J 10. a. C = 0.20J/gK b. Q = 24J

Chem II: 10/22 Infinite Campus Update: Thermochemistry Quiz Due: Calorimetry Food Lab Report Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can analyze energy changes during chemical and physical processes.

Calorimetry Food Lab www.physicslessons.com Calorimetry Measurement of heat flow in and out of a system during physical/chemical

changes. Energy equation and 1st Law of Thermodynamics is used to calculate energy transferrred by system. www.physicslessons.com Enthalpy The amount of energy contained by a system at constant pressure. (usually room temperature, 1atm)

H= The change in energy of a system during a reaction occuring at constant pressure. Heat released or absorbed by system , Q Q= H, at constant pressure

Calorimetry: Enthalpy Changes Enthalpy Calorimetry Problems When 25 mL of water containing 0.025 mol HCl at 25oC is added to 25.0 mL of water containing 0.025 mol of Na(OH) at 25oC in a foam calorimeter, a reaction occurs. Calculate the enthalpy change in kJ during this reaction if the highest temperature observed is 32oC. Assume the densities of the solutions are 1.00g/mL and the specific

heat of water is 4.184 J/goC. Chem II: 10/24 Infinite Campus Update: Thermochemistry Quiz Calorimetry Lab (29pts.) Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can analyze and calculate energy changes during

chemical and physical processes. Thermochemical Equations A chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change. 1. CaO (s) + H2O(l) -----> Ca(OH)2 (s) + 65.2 kJ CaO (s) + H2O(l) -----> Ca(OH)2 (s) H = -65.2 kJ

2. 2Na(HCO3)(s) + 129kJ -----> Na2(CO3) (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) 2Na(HCO3) (s) -----> Na2(CO3) (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) H= 129 kJ H = heat of reaction Thermochemical Equation CaO (s) + H2O(l) -----> Ca(OH)2 (s) H = -65.2 kJ

Heat of Reaction: ( H ) The enthalpy change for a chemical reaction based on the balanced equation at standard conditions. Standard temperature , 25oC (room temp.) Standard pressure, 1atm. Reactants/products states of matter must be at room temperature. Enthalpy change depends upon moles of substances in the reaction.

Heat or Reaction Calculations Using the thermochemical equation below, calculate the amount of heat in kJ required to decompose 2.24 mol Na(HCO3). 2Na(HCO3) (s) -----> Na2(CO3) (s) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g) H= 129 kJ Heats of Reaction Calculation Heat of Combustion

Heat of reaction for the complete burning of one mole of fuel. CH4 (g) + 2O2 (g) -----> H2O(l) + CO2 (g) H = -890kJ Substance Chemical Formula

Enthalpy Change (kJ/mol) Hydrogen H2 -286 Carbon

C (s) graphite -394 Methane CH4 (g) -890

Ethanol C2H5OH -1,368 Enthalpy: Changes in State Molar heat of fusion Molar heat of solidification

Molar heat of vaporization Molar heat of condensation Enthalpy: Changes in State Molar heat of fusion: H(fus) Amount of heat absorbed by one mole of solid as it melts to a liquid at constant temperature.

Molar heat of solidification: H(solid) Amount of heat released by one mole of liquid as it freezes to a solid at constant temperature. Molar heat of vaporization: H(vap) Amount of heat absorbed by one mole of liquid as it vaporizes to a gas at constant temperature. Molar heat of condensation: H(cond) Amount of released by one mole of gas as it condenses to a liquid at constant temperature.

Chem II: 10/25 Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes. Homework: Textbook Problems Energy Calculations: Homework

Homework Problems: (pg. 535-536) *43., 46., 47., 55., 56., 58., 59., 62., 66., 69. *Energy conversions: 1,000cal = 1Cal 1 J = 0.2390 cal Bell Ringer: Heats of Reaction 1. Identify each type of enthalpy change by name and classify each as exothermic or endothermic. a. 1 mol of H2O (l) ----> H2O (g) b.1 mol of NaCl (aq) ----> 1 mol NaCl (s)

2. Complete Heat Curve Graph Heat Curve Graph http://webmail.warwickschools.org Enthalpy: Heat of Solution Molar Heat of Solution: H(soln.) Heat is either absorbed or released during the formation of a solution.

The enthalpy change caused by the dissolution of one mole substance. Ex. Na(OH) (s) -----> Na+(aq) + OH- (aq) H(soln.) = -445.1kJ/mol Homework Questions Calculating Heats of Reaction (pg. 527) 1. Why would scientists need to calculate the heats

of reaction, H, when they can measure it by performing the reaction in the lab? 2. What are two ways scientists can calculate heats of reaction without performing the reaction in the lab. Chem II: 10/28 Objectives: I can analyze and calculate energy changes during

chemical and physical processes. Homework: Enthalpy Calculation Problems Enthalpy Calculation Quiz Tuesday Thermochemistry Test: Thursday Calculating Heats of Reaction (pg. 527) 1. Why would scientists need to calculate the heats of reaction, H, when they can measure it by performing the reaction in the lab?

Reaction might occur too slowly to measure. Reaction might be an intermediate step is a multistep reaction. Might want to preserve reactants in a reaction. Reaction in lab might yield side products (unwanted products) that affects the H. Heat of Reaction Calculations Enthalpy difference between reactants and products is independent of pathway. Enthalpy change can be calculated two ways:

* Hesss Law: Sum of several thermochemical equations. *Standard Heat of Formation: The difference in heat of formation of products and reactants in the reaction. H = Hf (products) - Hf (reactants) Hesss Law: Sum of Reactions CH4(g) + 2O2 (g) ----> 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l)

H =? C(s) + 2H2 (g) -----> CH4(g) H = -74.80 kJ/mol C(s) + O2 (g) -----> CO2 (g) H = -393.50 kJ/mol

H2 (g) + 1/2O2 (g)----> H2O (l) H= -285.83 kJ/mol Standard Heats of Formation CH4(g) + 2O2 (g) ----> 2CO2 (g) + 2H2O(l) H =? Can calculate using standard heats of formation if

occurs at standard conditions. H = Hf (products) - Hf (reactants) Standard Heats of Formation table (pg. 530) CH4(g) H = O2 (g) H= CO2(g) H = H2O(l)

H= Chem II: 10/29 Due: Thermohemistry Textbook Problems Objectives: I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes. Heats of Reaction Quiz

Homework: Read Hesss Law lab and complete background qts. Gallery Walk Practice Problems Apply Hesss Law and Standard Heats of Formation in calculating heats of reaction. Energy Calculations: Homework Homework Problems: (pg. 535-536) *43., 46., 47., 55., 56., 58., 59., 66., 69.

*Energy conversions: 1,000cal = 1Cal 1 J = 0.2390 cal In addition: 67., 69., 72., 73., 74., 82 Chem II: 10/30 Due: Thermochemistry Textbook Problems Objectives: I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes.

Complete Heats of Reaction Quiz Hesss Law Lab Homework: Complete Post-Lab Qts. Heats of Reaction Quiz 2NO2 ----> N2O4 (g) = H=?

2N2(g) + 2O2(g) ----> 2NO2 (g) H = 67.7 kJ N2(g) + 2O2 (g) ---> N2O4 (g) H = 9.7kJ Hesss Law Lab

Heats of Reaction Lab: Hesss Law Na(OH)(s) + HCl (aq) ----> NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) NaOH (s) ----> NaOH (aq) H =- 44 kJ NaOH(s) + HCl (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) H=? H = -55.6 kJ Pre-Lab Questions:

1. Use Hesss Law to calculate the theoretical H for our desired reaction. 2. As you perform each of these reactions in the lab, do you predict the temperature to increase or decrease? Explain your answers using the H values for each reaction. 3. Why is it important that the thermometer is NOT touching the sides of the cup as each reaction performed? Chem II: 10/31

Infinite Campus Update: Heats of Reaction Quiz 25pts. Objectives: I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes. Modify, complete, and analyze Heats of Reaction Lab. Address Heats of Reaction Quiz Homework: Complete Post-Lab Qts and work on dilution problems.

Heats of Reaction Lab: Hesss Law Na(OH)(s) + HCl (aq) ----> NaCl(aq) + H2O (l) NaOH (s) ----> NaOH (aq) H =- 44 kJ NaOH(aq) + HCl (aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O(l) H=? H = -55.6 kJ

Pre-Lab Questions: 1. Use Hesss Law to calculate the theoretical H for our desired reaction. 2. As you perform each of these reactions in the lab, do you predict the temperature to increase or decrease? Explain your answers using the H values for each reaction. 3. Why is it important that the thermometer is NOT touching the sides of the cup as each reaction performed?

Heats of Reaction Lab: Hesss Law Lab Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

T Heats of Reaction: Hesss Law Post Lab Questions: Omit question 6 Chem II: 11/4 Due: Heats of Reaction Lab

Objectives: I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes. I can calculate and perform dilutions in the lab. I can classify reactions as spontaneous or nonspontaneous. Homework: Complete Molarity and Spontaneous Reaction Wksht. Heats of Reaction Lab Report

Title Purpose Materials: List of chemicals only

Hypothesis: Incorporate pre-lab qts. Data: Qualitative (sentence) and quantitative (table) Analysis: Incorporate post-lab qts. Conclusion: Re-state purpose and results. Dilution Equation Purpose: Important when making different concentrated solutions in the lab. M1V1 = M2V2

Example: The lab calls for 800mL of 1M HCl solution. I have 12M HCl stock solution on the shelf. a. How much stock solution do I need? b. How much water is needed to dilute the stock solution to 1M HCl? Dilution Equation Purpose: Important when making different concentrated solutions in the lab.

M1V1 = M2V2 Dilution Equation Ex.2: How many milliliters of aqueous 2M MgSO4 solution must be diluted with water to prepare 100mL of aqeous 0.4M MgSO4? T or F: Does diluting a solution decrease the moles of solute in the solution? Explain your answer. Spontaneous Reactions

What are spontaneous reactions? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireworks Spontaneous Reactions Release of free energy. Increase in entropy of a system. Favors production of products. Ex. H2(CO3) -------> CO2(g) + H2O(l) Dependent upon temperature and pressure of

reaction. Ex. photosynthesis Not associated with speed of reaction. Free Energy

Gibbs free energy, G Energy produced from exothermic reactions. Energy that can be used to do work. Many times the production of free energy is used to initiate non-spontaneous reactions. (coupled reactions) Ex. Cells use free energy from spontaneous reaction to produce proteins from nonspontaneous reactions. Entropy

What is entropy? How is does it increase the spontaneity of a reaction? Entropy The disorder of a system. Law of Disorder: Tendency of a system to move in a direction that favors disorder. Achieve lowest possible energy for a system. Chem II: 11/5

Due: Heats of Reaction Lab Objectives: Peer Review of Lab Reports I can calculate and perform dilutions in the lab. I can classify reactions as spontaneous or nonspontaneous. Homework: Gibbs Free Energy Calculations Make changes to Heats of Reaction Lab (due Wed.)

Dilution Equation Purpose: Important when making different concentrated solutions in the lab. M1V1 = M2V2 Heats of Reaction Lab Report: Peer Review

Title Purpose Materials: List of chemicals only Hypothesis: Incorporate pre-lab qts. Data: Qualitative (sentence) and quantitative (table) Analysis: Incorporate post-lab qts.

Conclusion: Re-state purpose and results. 1.Check to ensure each section above is included in their report. 2. Identify changes or additions you think needs to be made. 3. Include a positive comment about their lab report. 4. Sign your name. Heats of Reaction Lab Report: Peer Review

Title Purpose Materials: List of chemicals only Hypothesis: Incorporate pre-lab qts.

Data: Qualitative (sentence) and quantitative (table) Analysis: Incorporate post-lab qts. Conclusion: Re-state purpose and results. 1.Check to ensure each section above is included in their report. 2. Identify changes or additions you think needs to be made. 3. Include a positive comment about their lab report. 4. Sign your name.

Entropy Changes Read pg. 570 and write down examples of where entropy increases for a system. Applications or illustrations of increase in entropy. Entropy Changes: S Applications of increase in entropy: + S Changes in state from solid---> gas. Making solutions and dilutions. In chemical reactions # of products > # of reactants

Temperature increases Energy Change Worksheet Chem II: 11/6 Due: Heats of Reaction Lab Modified Objectives: I can classify reactions as spontaneous or nonspontaneous. Homework:

Gibbs Free Energy Calculations Review over Thermochemistry content (Exam Fri.) Spontaneous vs. Non-Spontaneous Reactions Factors that favor a spontaneous reaction: 1. System releases energy (production of energy) 2. System increases in entropy. (disorder of system) Enthalpy Change Entropy Change of System

of System decreases (exothermic) increases increases (endothermic) increases decreases (exothermic)

decreases increases (endothermic) decreases Spontaneous Reaction?

Spontaneous Reactions : Predicting Given the following information predict if the following reaction is spontaneous or not. , SnCl4(l) + 2 H2O(l) SnO2(s) + 4 HCl(g) H = 133.0 kJ and S = 401.5 J/K Gibbs Free Energy Equation Used to determine if a reaction is spontaneous. Relationship between enthalpy, entropy, and temperature of system.

G is free energy or energy used for work. G = HT S Where: G = Gibbs free energy (energy for work) H = enthalpy change (total energy) S = entropy change (measure of disorder) If: G is negative the reaction is _____________. If: G is positive the reaction is ______________.

Spontaneous Reactions: Gibbs Free Energy Equation Calculate G for the reaction below at 25C to determine if the reaction is spontaneous. SnCl4(l) + 2 H2O(l) SnO2(s) + 4 HCl(g) H = 133.0 kJ and S = 401.5 J/K Chem II: 11/7 Due: Gibbs Free Energy Calculations

Objectives: I can distinguish between endothermic and exothermic processes during changes with matter. I can analyze and calculate energy changes during chemical and physical processes. I can calculate and perform dilutions in the lab. I can classify reactions as spontaneous or non-spontaneous. Review over Thermochemistry content Homework: Review over Thermochemistry content (Exam tomorrow)

Gibbs Free Energy Problems Room temperature= 25oC Temp conversion: K = oC + 273.15 Thermometers Visionlearning.com K = oC + 273

Bell Ringer Thermochemistry Review Exit Slip 1. How many mL of 2M MgSO4 solution must be diluted with water to prepare 100mL solution of 0.4M MgSO4? 2. T or F: Does diluting a solution decrease the moles of solute in the solution? Explain your answer.

3. Circle the examples below where entropy increases. a. sugar granules or sugar water b. 25mL of water or 25 ml of water vapor c. synthesis of water or decomposition of water 4. When graphite reacts with hydrogen at 300K, H is -74.8 kJ and S is -0.0809kJ/K. a. Compare H and S to predict if the reaction is spontaneous. Cosmic Background Radiation

Radiation evenly distributed throughout the universe. Temp: -270 oC (few degrees above absolute zero) Minute fluctuations in temperature observed. bbc.co.uk Composition of the Universe dailygalaxy.com

Composition of the Universe Normal Matter: Influenced by gravity and does emit or reflect light. Dark Matter: Influenced by gravity, but does not emit or reflect light. Dark Energy: Seems to oppose gravity. Currently most mysterious to scientists. dailygalaxy.com

Metallic Bonding Intermolecular Forces itl.chem.ufl.edu

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