Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol Key Literary Terms Protagonist: main character (hero) in any literary work. Antithesis: the opposite of someone or something. A character can be the complete
antithesis of another. We will see how this is true in the first stave. This term is similar to foil. (Remember Macbeth and Banquo?) Key Literary Terms Epiphany: the point or moment
in a literary work in which a character arrives at a significant realization or insight. An epiphany changes a characters understanding. Catharsis: the purging of emotions. Catharsis helps bring a character to redemption.
Key Literary Terms Verbal Irony: when a character says something but means the opposite. It is similar to sarcasm and is typically intentional. Onomatopoeia: a word that imitates a sound. Ex: buzz, bang!, zip!....
Key Literary Terms Periphrasis: the use of excessive or superfluous writing to achieve a poetic effect, also known as circumlocution. Stave One: Marleys Ghost A
stave is a musical term. Notice the title of this novel refers to a musical song. Dickens was being cute or clever by breaking the novel into 5 staves; think of each stave as a large chapter. Social Context Dickens social critique:
His writing was intended to illuminate the humanity of those suffering from the effects of the Industrial Revolution. He was a champion of the poor, of children, and really all those who were disenfranchised. Stave One Exposition- Setting (time/place) is
established: mid 19th century London Reader learns Old Marley was as dead as a doornail. Notice this clich- a very old, common and worn out expression/figure of speech Tone/Mood- dark, dreary, flat, bit creepy Story begins in counting-house (workplace) of misanthropic Ebeneezer Scrooge Stave One Narrator
goes to great lengths to establish facts of Marleys deathreader learns that Scrooge was Marleys only friend in life, only mourner at funeral Allusion to Shakespeares Hamlet helps clarify that Marley is actually a ghost just like the father of Hamlet. Stave One Characters Introduced
Ebeneezer Scrooge- miserly businessman, hates humankind (misanthrope), no friends, dark weather has no effect on him, laughs at the idea of charity, has not thought about Marley once since he died Stave One Characters Introduced Fred- Scrooges nephew, his antithesis, or opposite, extends
Scrooge an invitation to Christmas dinner, Scrooge rejects him, mocks him for being modest, somewhat poor, married, and for celebrating Christmas, later reveals himself to be kind soul who pities his uncle Stave One Characters Introduced Charity Workers/Portly GentlemenVisit Scrooge after Freds visit, ask for
donations to poor, rejected by Scrooge who says that prisons and workhouses are good enough for the poor, who he feels they should just die to decrease the surplus population Stave One Characters Introduced Countinghouse Clerk- mocked by
Scrooge when he asked for Christmas Day off, treated horribly by Scrooge, given very little coal to keep warm while working, reader later learns this is Bob Cratchit, father of the crippled boy, Tiny Tim Stave One Characters Introduced Jacob Marley- died 7 years ago on Christmas Eve, appears as a spectral vision/ apparition on door knocker of
counting house (illusion, foreshadowing), appears as the first of the 4 ghosts to visit Scrooge, lives just like Scrooge when he was alive MARLEYS GHOST Stave One Marleys Ghost I wear the chain I forged in life.I made it link by link.
Since his death, Marley has been wandering, in incessant torture of remorse, trying to make amends. He tries to warn Scrooge to shun the path I tread Stave One Significance of Marleys Ghost Reveals to the reader the exciting force/inciting incident. You will be visited by Three Spirits.
Stave One Significance of Marleys Ghost Marley shows Scrooge the tortured spirits/phantoms outside his window to help him see the life that awaits him unless he changes. They are unable to help those here on earth. Stave Two Ghost of Christmas Past Clock strikes one, and this bizarre-looking ghost appears.
Childlike, like an old man, but also ageless Light shines from head (symbolic of Scrooges past, his memories, his potential) Hold extinguisher (cap) to block the light Stave Two Ghost of Christmas Past Takes Scrooge first to his schoolhouse where he is a young, lonely boy abandoned by his father, then to visit the Fezziwigs, and finally Belle
Stave Two Characters Introduced: Young Scrooge- abandoned by his father, lonely, wants to be loved Fan- Scrooges loving sister who protects her brother, reader learns she later dies, has one child, Fred Stave Two Characters Introduced: Fezziwgs- family who employed
Scrooge, allowed Dick and Scrooge to serve as apprentices, treated him very well, wonderful family, mirror images of the Cratchits in terms of wholesomeness and family unit, help Scrooge see how he treats Bob Cratchit (What does Scrooge say?) Stave Two Characters Introduced: Belle- former fiance, Scrooge cannot bear to see her, realizes that he threw
love away for money, a kind soul who released Scrooge from their engagement since he loved work and $ more than her You are changed. Stave Two Scrooge already shows a kinder side: He has been hurt during his childhood, and this upsets him. He misses the company of the Fezziwigs.
He never recovered from losing Belle. Remove me!- his pain is too much for him. Stave Three Climax of the story Ghost of Christmas Present visits- (like the Jolly Green Giant, happy, welcoming) Scrooge has started to change significantly- notice/recall his reactions to
his young self, to the Fezziwigs, to Belle Also, notice how Scrooge responds/reacts to this ghost- he is now open to the idea of being shown how he can change Stave Three Characters Introduced: Cratchits- family of Bob, Scrooges clerk, jocund despite being very poor, happy, grateful, eldest
children Belinda and Peter work to help their dad Stave Three Characters Introduced: Tiny Tim- a frail, physically handicapped boy who is the ultimate symbol of goodness and innocence in story He wants to serve as an example to
others, a reminder of how Christ healed those who need Him (according to Bob) Stave Three Ghost of Christmas Present Sympathetic towards the poorsprinkles incense from his torch on them as he walks around Takes Scrooge all around the world- to a lighthouse, to hospitals, to cold mining villages- all to show Scrooge
there is hope in poverty and happiness in Christmas Stave Three Visit to Freds house shows Scrooge the error of his ways- Fred toasts to him, says he feels only pity for his uncle I am sorry for him. I couldnt be angry with him if I try..
Stave Three Ghost shows Scrooge children within his robe: Mans Children- Ignorance and Want Notice the symbolism here- How does this relate to Scrooge? How is verbal irony present in the Ghosts response?.....
The Ghost of Yet to Come The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come is the last of the three spirits that haunt the miser Ebenezer Scrooge, in order to prompt him to adopt a more caring attitude in life and avoid the horrid afterlife of Marley. Most people find the Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come the most fearsome of the spirits; it appeared to Scrooge as a
figure entirely muffled in a black hooded robe, except for a single gaunt hand with which it pointed. Although the character never speaks in the story, Scrooge seems to be able to get its messages, usually as assumptions due to his previous experiences. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ghost_of_Christmas_Yet_to_Come Stave Four Marks
the beginning of the denouement, the part of a literary work that follows the climax, leads to a resolution- loose ends are tied up. Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come (Future)- mysterious, immovable, does not speak, appears as Grim Reaper type Stave Four Its
likely to be a cheap funeral. Scrooge encounters businessmen who are talking about his death. Scrooge does not yet know whose death they are discussing. Stave Four Next stop with ghost: Old Joes pawn shop The low-life type characters (Mrs. Dilbert
included) wish to profit by selling goods stolen from the now-deceased Scrooge. Scrooge is laughed at and mocked as a wicked old screw. Mrs. Dilbert on selling Scrooges possessions for cash: Its a judgment on him. Stave Four Scrooge asks to visit people who
have some sort of emotion, some about this mystery man who has died. He is taken to people who owe him money (Caroline and her husband) How do they feel about this mans death? Why? Stave Four Ghost escorts Scrooge to the
Cratchits. What has happened to Tiny Tim? What kind of man does Bob Cratchit again show himself to be at this point? How so? When Scrooge is taken to the graveyard, he finally learns that the man who is dead is actually him. Stave Four Scrooge,
moved by the sight of his tombstone, seems to finally have realized the misery of his past life. Pleads with the ghost, I will live in the Past, Present, and Future. (personification) Scrooges epiphany is clearly illustrated in this stave. Stave Four Epiphany:
a sudden realization, a flash of recognition Scrooge experiences an epiphany in one night, thanks to the 4 ghosts. It begins when he first see his young self and is most clear when he pleads w/ the final ghost, I will honor Christmas in my heart.I will live in the Past, Present, and Future. Stave Five Catharsis:
a purging or redemption of great emotions, a coming to terms with deep emotions or troubles Scrooges catharsis is fully present and developed in Stave 5. He is happy, fully alive, and wants to make amends for his past. Stave Five Resolution
is present in this stave. Scrooge is thrilled to be alive and have a 2nd chance at life. He orders a huge turkey for the Cratchit family, he has dinner with Fred, he gives Bob a raise, and he becomes a 2nd father to Tim. Stave Five How
else does Scrooge make up for his miserable past? He runs into one of the portly gentlemen/charity workers from Stave One and donates a ridiculous amount of cash. Stave Five What is the most important effect of Scrooges epiphany and catharsis? Tiny Tim is saved due to his generosity!
Story ends on happy note- Tiny Tims quotation: God bless Us, Every One! Literary Terms Continued Verbal Irony: marked difference between what is stated and what is implied. (similar to sarcasm) Example- Ghost of Christmas Present
to Scrooge, Are there no workhouses? (Stave Three) Literary Terms Continued Onomatopoeia: words spelled the way they sound Notice the bells/clocks in Stave Five Examples: Buzz, dong, bam, moo Ding dong, bell! Bell, dong,
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