The Structure of Life

The Structure of Life

LEARNING OBJECTIVES IDENTIFY THE SEVEN CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS. DESCRIBE BASIC STRUCTURE OF A CELL, INCLUDING: CELL WALL CELL MEMBRANE NUCLEUS DESCRIBE BASIC FUNCTION OF A CELL, INCLUDING: CELL WALL CELL MEMBRANE NUCLEUS LEARN IMPORTANT VOCABULARY RELATED TO CELL STRUCTURE AND

FUNCTION DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN AN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELL USING ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE, BE ABLE TO BUILD A 3-D MODEL OF A CELL. THE STUDY OF LIVING ORGANISMS WHAT MAKES SOMETHING LIVING? LOOK AT THE TWO PICTURES BELOW: WITH YOUR SHOULDER PARTNER, YOU HAVE 2 MINUTES TO DECIDE WHAT FEATURES MAKE STEPHEN

CURRY ALIVE (AND AWESOME)? WHAT FEATURES MAKE A TACO NON-LIVING? HOW DO WE KNOW IF SOMETHING IS LIVING? ALL LIVING THINGS ARE CHARACTERIZED AS BEING ABLE TO DO SEVEN THINGS THESE ARE USUALLY REMEMBERED BY THE MNEMONIC MRS NERG M R

S N E R G CAN YOU GUESS WHAT THE LETTERS STAND FOR? THE SEVEN CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS Animals

Movemen t Move to find food and keep away from predators Plants Move to face the light. Reproduct Ability to reproduce offspring to keep species in existence.

ion Ability to reproduce offspring to keep species in existence. Sensitivity Responding and reacting to the environment. Need food for respiration Nutrition Responding and reacting to the environment.

Excretion Getting rid of waste Respiratio Turning food (glucose) into energy n Growing larger and stronger (adult Growth size) Need minerals from the soil Getting rid of waste Turning food (glucose) into energy

Growing larger and stronger (adult size) SHOULDER PARTNER REVIEW WHAT ARE THE SEVEN CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS? ALL LIVING THINGS ARE MADE OF CELLS A CELL IS THE BASIC UNIT OF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIFE. THEY ARE THE SMALLEST UNIT OF LIFE CELLS ARE SO SMALL THAT WE GENERALLY NEED A MICROSCOPE TO SEE THEM

ALL ORGANISMS ARE MADE UP OF ONE OR MORE CELLS. ORGANISMS CAN BE UNICELLULAR LIKE BACTERIA OR MULTI-CELLULAR, LIKE US! UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS CAN USUALLY ONLY BE SEEN UNDER A MICROSCOPE. MOST ORGANISMS YOU CAN SEE ARE MULTICELLULAR SHOULDER PARTNER REVIEW WHAT IS A CELL? WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF CELLS?

DISCOVERY OF CELLS ROBERT HOOKE USED A MICROSCOPE TO DISCOVER CELLS (1660S) HE GAVE THE CELL ITS NAME. WHERE DO CELLS COME FROM? CELLS COME FROM OTHER CELLS

CELLS DIVIDE: ONE LIVING CELL DIVIDES INTO TWO LIVING CELLS. TWO LIVING CELLS DIVIDE INTO 4 LIVING CELLS. FOUR LIVING CELLS DIVIDE INTO 8 LIVING CELLS. CELL SIZE DESCRIBING A CELL REQUIRES A VERY SMALL UNIT OF MEASUREMENT: MICROMETER A MICROMETER IS ONE MILLIONTH OF A METER MOST CELLS RANG IN SIZE FROM ABOUT 1 MICROMETER

TO 1000 MICROMETERS IT WOULD TAKE ABOUT 17,000 TINY CELLS LINED UP NEXT TO EACH OTHER TO GO ACROSS A DIME. SHOULDER PARTNER REVIEW WHERE DO CELLS COME FROM? WHAT UNIT OF MEASUREMENT IS USED TO MEASURE CELLS? CELLS ARE DIVERSE THE INSIDE OF ONE CELL CAN BE VERY DIFFERENT FROM THE INSIDE OF

ANOTHER CELL. THERE ARE TWO CATEGORIES OF CELLS: EUKARYOTIC PROKARYOTIC ALL ORGANISMS EXCEPT ARCHAEBACTERIAL AND EUBACTERIA ARE MADE UP OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS. EUKARYOTIC CELL CELLS WITH MEMBRANE-BOUND STRUCTURES

CELL HAVE A NUCLEUS ALMOST ALL MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS ARE EUKARYOTIC PROKARYOTIC CELL CELLS WITHOUT MEMBRANE-BOUND STRUCTURES NO NUCLEUS MOST UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS ARE PROKARYOTIC SHOULDER PARTNER REVIEW WHAT ARE THE TWO CATEGORIES OF CELLS?

WHAT ARE THE TWO MAIN DIFFERENCES? HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=MFOPLILIOEA ANIMAL CELL Cytoskele ton Cell Wall ANIMAL CELL

CELL: THE ENTIRE STRUCTURE, LIVING THING CELL WALL: THE VERY OUTER EDGE OF THE CELL CELL MEMBRANE: ENCLOSES THE CELL. ACTS LIKE A GATE KEEPER. CYTOPLASM: GEL-LIKE FLUID TAKES UP MOST OF THE SPACE INSIDE A CELL. MOSTLY WATER. CYTOSKELETON: NETWORK OF FIBERS SHAPES CELL AND HOLDS ORGANELLES IN PLACE. ORGANELLES: THESE ARE SCATTERED THROUGHOUT THE CYTOPLASM. THEY CARRY OUT THE ACTIVITIES THAT KEEP THE CELL ALIVE. NUCLEUS: A STRUCTURE LOCATED NEAR THE CENTER. CHROMOSOMES: GENETIC STRUCTURES THAT CONTAIN

INFORMATION USED TO DIRECT CELL ACTIVITY AND MAKE NEW CELLS. LOCATED IN NUCLEUS. DNA: MAKES UP CHROMOSOMES. NUCLEAR MEMBRANE: SURROUNDS AND PROTECTS THE NUCLEUS. Cytoskel eton Cell Wall ANIMAL CELL NUCLEOLUS: INSIDE THE NUCLEUS, MAKES

RIBOSOMES. VACUOLES: FLUID-FILLED STRUCTURES; TEMPORARILY STORE SUBSTANCES NEEDED BY THE CELL. MITOCHONDRIA: USES OXYGEN TO TRANSFORM THE ENERGY IN FOOD TO SO THE CELL CAN USE TO CARRY OUT ITS ACTIVITIES. THE POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL. ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM: THIS ORGANELLE PRODUCES THINGS LIKE PROTEINS AND LIPIDS FOR THE CELL; AN INTERNAL DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR THE CELL. RIBOSOMES: THIS ORGANELLE PRODUCES THINGS LIKE PROTEINS AND LIPIDS FOR THE CELL GOLGI BODIES: HELP PACKAGE PRODUCTS FROM THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND DISTRIBUTE THEM

AROUND THE CELL OR OUTSIDE OF IT. LYSOSOME: AN ORGANELLE IN THE CYTOPLASM CONTAINING ENZYMES Cytoskel eton Cell Wall PLANT CELL PLANT CELLS ARE GENERALLY SHAPED LIKE A SQUARE OR RECTANGLE. ANIMAL CELLS ARE USUALLY SHAPED LIKE A CIRCLE. PLANT CELLS HAVE ALL THE STRUCTURES OF AN ANIMAL CELL, PLUS

STRUCTURES NOT FOUND IN ANIMAL CELLS: CELL WALL CHLOROPLASTS PLANT CELL STRUCTURES NUCLEUS: LOCATED TO ONE SIDE OF A PLANT CELL VACUOLE: ONLY ONE GOLGI BODIES: CELLULOSE IS MADE HERE, WHICH IS USED IN THE CELL WALL. CHLOROPLASTS: FOOD-MAKING STRUCTURES OF PLANT CELLS THAT CONTAIN THE GREEN PIGMENT, CHLOROPHYLL.

CHLOROPHYLL CAPTURES THE ENERGY OF SUNLIGHT AND USES IT TO DRIVE A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT IS CALLED PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cell Wall: outer barrier that provides extra support for the cell. Made mostly of PARTS OF A MICROSCOPE

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