The standard briefing for Level 1 orientation & other groups.

The standard briefing for Level 1 orientation & other groups.

Introduction to Safety Management System (SMS) Federal Aviation Administration Flight Standards and Industry Roles Presented By: Flight Standards Service Federal Aviation Administration SL-1 Agenda Overview Safety Fundamentals & Case for SMS SMS Fundamentals - Overview Policy Component Safety Risk Management Component Safety Assurance Component Safety Promotion Component Standards, Tools and Implementation

Federal Aviation Administration SL-2 Federal Aviation Administration Overview Federal Aviation Administration SL-3 What SMS is not and what it is What it isnt: What it is: A substitute for compliance Compliance is integral to safety management

A substitute for oversight An effective interface for safety management A replacement for system safety SMS completes the systems approach A requirement for a new department A set of decision making processes for senior and line management Federal Aviation Administration SL-4 What is safety? Freedom from harm (Dictionary defn.)

Safety is not equivalent to risk free (U.S. Supreme Court, 1980) Risk management is a more practical term than safety. (Jerome Lederer ~1928) Carelessness and overconfidence are more dangerous than deliberately accepted risk (Wilbur Wright, 1901) Practical safety is risk management Federal Aviation Administration SL-5 Definition of Safety Safety is the state in which the risk of harm to persons or property is reduced to, and maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a continuing process of hazard identification and risk management ICAO Doc 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-6

Safety Management Systems SMS A systemic approach to managing safety, including the necessary organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-7 SMS Purpose and Methods Safety management systems provide a systematic way to control risk and to provide assurance that those risk controls are effective The SMS gives the certificate holder a formal means of meeting statutory safety requirements (title 49) and the FAA a means of evaluating management capability Federal Aviation Administration

SL-8 System Safety "The application of special technical and managerial skills in a systematic, forward looking manner to identify and control hazards throughout the life cycle of a project, program, or activity" (Roland & Moriarty, 1990) Traditional approach concentrates on technical SMS adds emphasis on management elements Federal Aviation Administration SL-9 SMS, ATOS, SAS, and QMS Does SMS =ATOS=SAS? SMS Management system Only service provider can manage

ATOS Oversight system Used to meet regulator responsibilities Does SMS = QMS? Same principles but different objectives QMS Objective Customer satisfaction SMS Objective Aviation safety SAS Safety Assurance System FAA-Future-State system safety oversight across 14CFR parts (121, 135, 145) Federal Aviation Administration

SL-10 ICAO Annex 6 From 1 January, 2009, States shall require, as part of their safety programme, that an operator implement a safety management system acceptable to the State of the Operator The U.S. has filed a difference with ICAO Currently, there are no FAA authorized procedures to accept of approve Service Providers SMSs Federal Aviation Administration SL-11 ICAO: States safety programme Definition: An integrated set of regulations and activities aimed

at improving safety. Includes SMS requirements for aviation service providers The AVSSMS is the U.S. safety program FAA Oversight Regulations, Standards & Policy Assurance (ex; Certification, Surveillance, etc.) Service Provider SMS Requirements Federal Aviation Administration SL-12 ICAO State Safety Programme (SSP) SSP Framework Annex 6 ICAO Doc 9859: Safety Management Manual (SMM) SMS Framework

FAA Aviation Safety (AVS) Safety Program=AVS SMS Order 8000.369; FAA SMS Guidance VS8000.367; Requirements Doc External (Service Provider SMS) Internal (FAA SMS) Flight Standards AVS LOBs SSP & FAA Oversight AC 120-92; SMS Standard Developmental Guidance Air Operators/ Service Providers SMS

Federal Aviation Administration SL-13 Clarifying the 3 Rs: FAAs Safety Management (Oversight) (SAS) Roles, Responsibilities and Relationships: FAA Service Providers Operators Safety Management System (External SMS) Operational Process Federal Aviation Administration

SL-14 Federal Aviation Administration Safety Fundamentals & Case for SMS Federal Aviation Administration SL-15 What is the Fundamental Objective of a Business Organization? To achieve its production objectives! Federal Aviation Administration SL-16

The Business Case Aviation organization management requires managing many business processes. Safety management is a core business function just as financial management, HR management, etc. This constitutes a management challenge. Federal Aviation Administration SL-17 Protection and Production Safety Requirements Title 49 USC44702 the duty of an air carrier to provide service at the highest level of safety in the public interest Economic Requirements [Proposed operation must be] consistent with public convenience and necessity [Company must be] fit, willing and able to provide the service proposed Federal Aviation Administration

SL-18 Safety Space Protection Bankruptcy Financial Management Unrocked Boat Safety Management Catastrophe Production Life of the system Federal Aviation Administration SL-19 Safety Management System Infuses safety into all parts of the system

People Tools Procedures Materials Equipment Software Management levels Protection Production To maintain the balance of production and protection Federal Aviation Administration SL-20

R a m p D a m a g e H a s B ig P r ic e T a g F o r A ir lin e s A ile r o n & T a b A s s e m b ly $ 1 8 3 ,5 4 5 O u tb o a r d F la p A s s e m b ly $ 2 5 5 ,8 4 5 P a r ts p r ic e s o n ly E le v a to r A s s e m b ly $ 2 6 4 ,7 0 8 In b o a r d F la p A s s e m b ly $ 2 2 4 ,8 7 2 C a r g o D o o r $ 5 8 ,3 2 7 M a in E n tr y D o o r $ 1 7 1 ,2 2 0 L .E . S la t A s s e m b ly $ 5 2 ,8 6 3 R a d o m e $ 1 9 ,7 1 2 W in g tip A s s e m b ly $ 2 8 ,8 7 2 T A T P ro b e

$ 6 ,5 8 3 A O A V a n e $ 4 ,3 0 0 P ito t S ta tic P r o b e $ 5 ,1 5 7 S id e c o w l $ 1 6 1 ,4 0 7 In le t C o w l $ 3 2 9 ,2 0 3 In le t C o w l S e g m e n t $ 5 ,1 5 1 8 Federal Aviation Administration SL-21 Accidents and Incidents Cost! Direct costs Loss of aircraft Injuries to or death of flight crewmembers, passengers Insurance deductibles

Costs not covered by insurance Indirect costs Loss of use of equipment Loss of staff Involved in accident issues Lower productivity Investigation & clean-up Legal claims Fines Misplaced/stranded passengers Negative media exposure Federal Aviation Administration SL-22 Income lost

Event Direct Indirect Catering truck hits airplane $17,000 $230,000 Jetway hits airplane $50,000 $600,000 $1,900,000 $4,800,000 Landing event Source: USAir/America West Airlines

Federal Aviation Administration SL-23 Accidents Cost Small Operators, Too Claim Flight Training Fixed Wing Air Operation Taxi Operation Helicopter Air Taxi Forced landing (aircraft destroyed) $150,000 $300,000 $900,000 Propeller makes contact with object on ground

$20,000 $30,000 $150,000 $5,000 $10,000 $35,000 $500-1,400 $3-5,000 $8-10,000 Hangar Rash Flight cancellation per day Federal Aviation Administration

SL-24 Technical Factors Human Factors1949 British Comet Organizational Factors 1954 Boeing Federal Aviation Administration SL-25 Human Error and Operations Human error: a contributing factor in most aviation occurrences. Even competent personnel commit errors. Errors are a normal component of any system where humans and technology interact.

Federal Aviation Administration SL-26 Types of Errors (Active Failures) Perception Errors I didnt see it, or I didnt notice the difference Memory Lapses I forgot to do it Slips I didnt mean to do that Wrong Assumption I assumed that the situation was different Alan Hobbs, ATSB (2008) Federal Aviation Administration SL-27 Errors (cont.) Technical Misunderstandings I tried to do it right but I didnt understand

what I had to do Procedure Violations Nobody follows that procedure here. We cant get the job done if we do all that Alan Hobbs, ATSB (2008) Federal Aviation Administration SL-28 Organizational Accidents Organizational processes Workplace conditions Latent conditions Active failures Defenses

Federal Aviation Administration SL-29 Traditional approach Preventing accidents Focus on outcomes (causes) Unsafe acts by operational personnel Attach blame/punish for failures to perform safely Address identified safety concern exclusively Identifies: WHAT? WHEN? WHO? But not always discloses: WHY?

HOW? Federal Aviation Administration SL-30 Safety Management Strategies Reactive (Past) Proactive (Present) Predictive (Future) Responds to events that have already happened, such as incidents and accidents Actively seeks the identification of hazardous

conditions through the analysis of the organizations processes Analyzes system processes and environment to identify potential future problems Federal Aviation Administration SL-31 Federal Aviation Administration SMS Fundamentals Federal Aviation Administration

SL-32 SMS Components (Pillars) Policy Safety Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-33 The 4 SMS Components Policy (Structure) Risk Management

Safety Assurance Safety Promotion 1. Policy All management systems must define policies, procedures, and organizational structures to accomplish their goals. Policy establishes the structure of the SMS. Federal Aviation Administration SL-34 The 4 SMS Components Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety

Assurance Safety Promotion 2. Safety Risk Management. A formal system of hazard identification, analysis and risk management is essential in controlling risk to acceptable levels. Federal Aviation Administration SL-35 The 4 SMS Components Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion

3. Safety Assurance. Once controls are identified, the SMS must assure they are continuously practiced and continue to be effective in a changing environment. Federal Aviation Administration SL-36 The 4 SMS Components Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion 4. Safety Promotion.

The organization must promote safety as a core value with practices that support a positive safety culture. Federal Aviation Administration SL-37 SMS Concepts: Risk Management Understanding the system and environment Identifying hazardous conditions Assessing risk Applying risk controls Federal Aviation Administration SL-38 SMS Concepts: Assurance Assurance: something that gives confidence1 Quality assurance: ...

focused on providing confidence that quality requirements are being met2 Likewise, Safety Assurance relates to safety requirements 1 Blacks Law Dictionary 2 ISO 9000-2000 Federal Aviation Administration SL-39 Safety Risk Management (SRM) and Safety Assurance (SA) Workflow SRM SA Description & Context

System Description System Operation Hazard Ident Data Acquisition & Process Specific Information Risk Analysis Analysis Analysis Risk Assmt

System Assmt Risk Control Corrective Action Design Performance Assessment Action: Problem Resolution Federal Aviation Administration SL-40 SRM

SA Understand: Monitor/ Measure: Objectives Risk Controls System Environment Decision Making Develop: Confidence: Risk Controls Risk

Controls Design Performance Federal Aviation Administration SL-41 Oversight and SMS FAA Oversight Program Management DA PA Protection FAAs Safety Management (Oversight) (SAS)

Production Technical Program Requirements Systems Subsystems Elements Surveillance S R M Cert S A Operators Safety Management System Operational Process Public: Users

C.O.S. Federal Aviation Administration SL-42 Safety Management System Provides a systematic way to: 1. Identify hazards and control risk 2. Provide assurance that risk controls are effective Policy (Structure) Safety Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion (Culture) Federal Aviation Administration SL-43

Federal Aviation Administration SMS Details: Policy Component Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-44 SMS Policy Establishes management commitment and objectives what the management wants Sets up framework of organizational

structures, accountabilities, plans, procedures, and controls to meet objectives Federal Aviation Administration SL-45 Management Functions Managers must be actively and personally involved in: Planning: Setting clear goals, guidelines, standards, and timelines for safety Organizing: Providing clear lines of management and supervisory responsibility, control and communication Directing: Allocation of resources needed for accomplishment of safety goals Controlling: Personal involvement in assurance of safety goals and objectives Federal Aviation Administration SL-46 Management Responsibility

Managers should manage safety in the same way that they manage other areas of the business Safety management involves judgment, assessing priorities, and making decisions like all management decision making Top management requirement to provide resources Federal Aviation Administration SL-47 Top Management Involvement Top management stimulates a healthy safety environment Visible, personal involvement of top management Setting safety goals and objectives as policy Allocation of resources to meet safety goals Clear communication AC 120-92, App. 1 Federal Aviation

Administration SL-48 Objectives of the Policy Component Top Management will: Implement an integrated, comprehensive SMS for entire organization Define a safety policy and set safety objectives Define roles, responsibilities, and authorities throughout the organization Appoint a member of management to implement and maintain the SMS Federal Aviation Administration SL-49 Safety Policy Requirements: Commitment to:

Implement an SMS Continually improve safety Manage safety risk Comply with statutory & regulatory requirements Establish clear standards of acceptable behavior Documented Communicated Periodically reviewed Federal Aviation Administration SL-50 Organizational Structure Top management with ultimate authority and responsibility Defined lines of supervision and control Defined safety responsibilities for all employees Designated management official to ensure effectiveness of SMS (e.g. DOS) Federal Aviation Administration

SL-51 System Attributes Processes must have safety requirements built into their design. a) Responsibility: accountable for quality of activities b) Authority: power to accomplish required activities c) Procedures: clear instructions for members of the organization d) Controls: supervisory controls on processes to ensure activities produce the correct outputs Federal Aviation Administration SL-52 System Attributes In addition, there are process measures and interfaces. e) Process Measures: measurement of both processes & their products f) Interfaces: Recognizing interrelationships

between individuals and organizations within the company as well as with contractors, vendors, customers, and other organizations Federal Aviation Administration SL-53 System Attributes in Management The six attributes are the essence of management: Planning: Procedures Organizing: Procedures, Responsibilities & Interfaces Directing: Responsibilities & Authority Controlling: Process Measures & Controls Now also documented in the ICAO SMM Federal Aviation Administration SL-54 SMS Documentation System documentation conveys

management expectations and work instructions to employees May be a stand-alone manual or integrated into existing documentation systems Federal Aviation Administration SL-55 Federal Aviation Administration SMS Details: Data Quality Federal Aviation Administration SL-56 Decision Making: Data, Analysis, and Assessment Reports (Facts): what exists or is happening

now Inferences (Interpretations) Whats likely to happen in the future, based on whats happening now Conclusions based on facts Judgments: value, quality assessments (e.g. good, bad, acceptable, unacceptable) of what is or will exist or happen Federal Aviation Administration SL-57 Example: Facts (Conditions): Duty day is 14 hours Flight schedule is 8 hours Flights have 10 legs, 10 IFR approaches Flights are legal (within regs.)

Inference (Hazard): Crew fatigue will probably result Inference (Risk analysis): Likelihood of crew errors will increase Judgment (Risk Assessment): Unacceptable risk Federal Aviation Administration SL-58 Attributes of Data and Measures Validity: Does the data/measure address the subject desired? Does it only address the subject desired? How completely does it cover the subject desired? Reliability: Are data points about the same thing comparable? Are data points collected by different observers comparable? Data and measures must be reliable to be

valid but reliable data is not always valid Training and careful preparation of tools can increase reliability of data Federal Aviation Administration SL-59 SMS Details: Federal Aviation Administration Safety Risk Management Component Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety

Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-60 Definitions Safety management systems provide a systematic way to control risk and to provide assurance that those risk controls are effective. Safety Risk Management is a formal system of hazard identification, analysis and risk management essential in controlling risk to acceptable levels. Federal Aviation Administration SL-61 Levels of Risk Management Process Risk Management Policy (What) Procedure (How) Controls Operational Risk Management

Operational Control (Flight/Task/Mission) Crew/Team (Real time decision making) Federal Aviation Administration SL-62 System Description System Description Hazard Identification What is System & Task Analysis? It is a system design function. It is a predictive method of hazard identification. It is the foundation for sound safety analysis. Risk Analysis

Risk Assmt When is it used? Risk Control Used during implementation phases of SMS. Used in conjunction with all operational changes. Who uses System & Task Analysis?: Personnel within the organization who form an appropriately diverse team: Stakeholders ICAO Doc. 9859 Subject Matter Experts Federal Aviation Administration SL-63

SRM System Description System Description Facts Processes Hazard Identification Activities Workplace Conditions: e.g. System Factors & Attributes Risk Analysis Risk Assmt

Variable Human Performance Equipment Information (Procedures) Facilities Phys. Envir. Other Proc. (Interfaces) Training Supv./Mgmt. (Controls) . Risk Control Federal Aviation Administration SL-64 Typical Workplace Conditions Equipment: Human-Machine Interface, Facilities Operators: Individual performance Crew/team performance

Organizational culture Company/regulator factors Strauch, Barry (2004). Investigating Human Error Federal Aviation Administration SL-65 Process (System) Attributes Responsibility Authority Procedures Controls Process Measures Interfaces Federal Aviation Administration SL-66 External Internal Decision by

Organization Controls (C) Procedural Supervision Assurance Processes Inputs Process Activities Previous Process Interface (I) Responsibility (R) Accountable for process output Authority (A) Procedures (P) Empowered to: Make key

decisions Alter process Outputs Deliverable Performance Measures (PM) Destination Interface (I) Federal Aviation Administration SL-67 Conditions Related to Error Time pressure Procedures and documentation Teamwork/documentation Shift turnovers/crew briefings Group norms Fatigue management (shifts/circadian problems) Alan Hobbs, ATSB (2008) Federal Aviation Administration SL-68 Conditions Related to Error (cont.)

Lack of System Knowledge Equipment/facilities Human-machine interface (e.g. design for maintainability) Federal Aviation Administration SL-69 Activities and Conditions: Deicing Activities/Tasks and Actors Workplace Conditions What and Who System and Environment Select type of fluid (Check holdover time) Day/Night Precipitation/cold Position at Aircraft

Employee demographics Communicate with crew Apply Fluid Depart Ramp Area Federal Aviation Administration SL-70 Hazard Identification System Description Hazard Identification A hazard is any real or potential condition Risk Analysis that can result in injury, illness, or death

to people; damage to, or loss of, a system (hardware or software), equipment, or property; and/or damage to the operating environment. Risk Assmt Risk Control ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-71 SRM Hazard Identification from Workplace Conditions System Description Hazard

Identification Processes Activities Workplace Conditions: e.g. System Factors & Attributes Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Equipment Information (Procedures) Facilities Phys. Envir. Other Proc. (Interfaces) Training Supv./Mgmt. (Controls) . Deficient Conditions

impacting activities = Risk Control Inference Variable Performance Causing Active Failures Hazards Resulting in Consequences Federal Aviation Administration SL-72 Risk Analysis System Description Important to distinguish between:

Hazard Identification Hazard a condition Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Consequence result Risk Control Risk likelihood & severity of the consequence Analyzing risk involves the consideration of both the likelihood and the severity of any adverse consequences. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration

SL-73 SRM From Hazard to Risk System Description Hazard Identification Deficient Conditions impacting activities = Variable Performance Hazards Causing Risk Analysis Risk Assmt

Risk Control Resulting in Active Failures Consequences L ikelihood S everity Risk Judgment Risk Federal Aviation Administration SL-74 Failures and Consequences Active failures Potential Consequences

Direct results of conditions (e.g. accident/incident severity) Incorrect Fluid Type Take-off accidents due to ice Hold-over time too long Incomplete deicing Federal Aviation Administration SL-75 Risk Analysis Risk is the composite of the predicted likelihood or probability and the severity of each possible consequence of each identified hazard. Hazard Intolerable

Active Failure Tolerable Consequence Acceptable Probability Severity Risk Level Adapted from ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-76 Risk Assessment Risk assessment determines the level of risk to use in making a bottom line decision. System Description

Hazard Identification Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Risk Control Risk Likelihood Risk Severity Catastrophi c Hazardo us A B

Major Minor Negligible C D E Frequent 5 5A 5B 5C 5D 5E

Occasional 4 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E Remote 3 3A 3B 3C 3D

3E Improbable 2 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E Extremely improbable 1 1A 1B

1C 1D 1E A risk matrix is a tool used for risk assessment. It can vary in form yet it accomplishes the same purpose. Federal Aviation Administration SL-77 Risk Control = Risk Mitigation System Description Hazard Identification A major component of any safety system is the defenses (controls) put in place to protect people, property or the environment.

Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Risk Control These defenses are used to reduce the likelihood or severity of the consequences associated with any given hazard or condition. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration SL-78 SRM Risk Control/Mitigation System Description

Hazard Identification Processes Activities e.g. System Factors & Attributes Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Risk Control Workplace Conditions: Variable Human Performance

Equipment Information (Procedures) Facilities Phys. Envir. Other Proc. (Interfaces) Training Supv./Mgmt. (Controls) . Risk Controls Federal Aviation Administration SL-79 Risk Control Order of Precedence: System Description Hazard Identification 1. Modify the system (design hazard out) 2. Physical guards or barriers

Risk Analysis Risk Assmt 3. Warnings or alert signal Risk Control 4. Administrative controls Procedures Training Federal Aviation Administration SL-80 SMS Details: Federal Aviation Administration Safety Assurance

Component Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-81 Objective of Safety Assurance Assurance: something that gives confidence1 Safety Assurance: something that gives confidence in safety risk controls. 1

Blacks Law Dictionary Federal Aviation Administration SL-82 Safety Assurance Functions: Collect and analyze information to determine that process requirements are continuously being met. Assess performance and effectiveness of risk controls. Works in partnership with Risk Management. AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-83 S.A. is similar to Q.A. QA focuses on product conformity & customer satisfaction on a continuous basis. SA ensures that risk controls, once designed and put to place, perform in a way that continue to

meet their safety objectives. Integration of management systems may be beneficial. AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-84 S.A. & Q.A.: Once controls are in place, quality management techniques can be used to provide a structured process for ensuring that they achieve their intended objectives and, where they fall short, to improve them. AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-85 System Operation System

Operation Data Acquisition & Process Written documentation to describe: Analysis System Assmt Who, What, When, Where, Why, How Preventive/ Corrective Action The system operation includes: 1) Monitoring of risk controls during operations; 2) System description, including risk controls added during SRM which form the basis for SA functions such as audits and analysis. AC 120-92 Federal Aviation

Administration SL-86 Data Acquisition and Process System Operation Data Acquisition & Process Types of Information Sources 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Continuous Monitoring Internal Audits Internal Evaluation External Audits Investigations Employee Reporting Systems

Analysis System Assmt Preventive/ Corrective Action SMS Framework Elements 3.1.1 through 3.1.6 Federal Aviation Administration SL-87 Continuous Monitoring System Operation Where SRM and SA interface - risk controls Data Acquisition & Process

Analysis Line managers of operational departments: Accomplish continuous monitoring of day-to-day activities & processes System Assmt Preventive/ Corrective Action Have direct responsibility for process control Must ensure that processes in their areas function as designed. Federal Aviation Administration SL-88 Continuous Monitoring - Operational Data Sources Flight dispatch records Flight schedules Financial data

Crew schedules and records Warranty return reports Aircraft discrepancy reports Flight cancellation and delay reports Federal Aviation Administration SL-89 Internal Audits System Operation The day-to-day responsibility for safety management rests with those who own the technical processes. Data Acquisition & Process Analysis System

Assmt Preventive/ Corrective Action This is where: deficiencies in processes contribute to risk audits provide feedback to process owners direct supervisory control and resource allocation can help to maintain effectiveness of risk controls Federal Aviation Administration SL-90 Internal Audits Continued System Operation Data Acquisition & Process

Performed by each department. Department Director/Manager is responsible. Analysis System Assmt Regularly scheduled Preventive/ Corrective Action Include contractors & vendors Determine: Conformity with safety risk controls Performance of safety risk controls Performance to meet business objectives Deficiencies always get action! AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration

SL-91 Internal Evaluation System Operation Performed by a functionally independent person or organization (e.g. QA, Safety) Data Acquisition & Process Analysis System Assmt A process-oriented control function Preventive/ Corrective Action Backs up the internal audit function

Uses sampling to validate SA processes Federal Aviation Administration SL-92 External Audits System Operation Data Acquisition & Process Analysis Conducted by: System Assmt Code-share partners Industry organizations (e.g. C.A.S.E.) Preventive/

Corrective Action Third parties: consultants The regulator (FAA) = Safety Oversight Federal Aviation Administration SL-93 Safety investigations System Operation For continuity put the event behind us Data Acquisition & Process Analysis To put losses behind

System Assmt To reassert trust and faith in the system Preventive/ Corrective Action To resume normal activities To fulfil political purposes For improved system reliability To learn about system vulnerability To develop strategies for change To prioritize investment of resources Federal Aviation Administration SL-94 Employee Reporting System Operation

Employee safety reporting & feedback system is required. Data Acquisition & Process Analysis System Assmt Must provide confidentiality. Employees must be encouraged to use the system. Preventive/ Corrective Action Data may identify emerging hazards. Data must be included in analysis. AC 120-92, App. 1 Federal Aviation Administration

SL-95 Analysis System Operation Data Acquisition & Process To be useful, information must be made understandable. Analysis System Assmt Analysis is used to determine effectiveness of: Preventive/ Corrective Action 1. Risk controls in the organizations

operational processes, and 2. the SMS. AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-96 Types of analysis System Operation Data Acquisition & Process Against criteria/objectives Analysis Compared to norms System Assmt Patterns from multiple data points

Preventive/ Corrective Action Trends over time Trends is one of the most misused term in analysis Must have stable, reliable measures at each time sample for a valid trend Federal Aviation Administration SL-97 System Assessment System Operation Are objectives being met? (Happy loop) Risk controls failing due to:

Lack of supervision Lack of resources Lack of training Poor job aids Data Acquisition & Process Analysis System Assmt Preventive/ Corrective Action New Hazard/failed Risk Controls (redesign - back to SRM) Prioritize according to safety criticality (triage) Federal Aviation

Administration SL-98 Preventive/Corrective Actions System Operation Revised policies Data Acquisition & Process New procedures Analysis System Assmt Equipment changes Preventive/ Corrective Action

Enhanced training Schedule changes Assignment of responsible persons Federal Aviation Administration SL-99 Management Review Top management will conduct regular reviews of the SMS, including: The outputs of SRM & SA Lessons learned Need for changes Federal Aviation Administration SL-100 Continuous Improvement The organization shall continuously improve the effectiveness of the SMS through: Safety and Quality Policies Safety Objectives

Audit & Evaluations Analysis of Data Corrective and Preventive Actions Management Reviews AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-101 SMS Details: Federal Aviation Administration Safety Promotion Component Policy (Structure) Risk Management Safety Assurance

Safety Promotion Federal Aviation Administration SL-102 Promotion: Definition Safety promotion = a combination of: Safety Culture, Training and Knowledge Sharing activities that support the implementation and operation of SMS in an organization Organizations must promote safety as a core value with practices that support a positive safety culture. AC 120-92, App. 1 Federal Aviation Administration SL-103 Organizational Culture National Culture

Values Professional Norms Psychological Laws/Regulations Industry Standards System/ Environment Industry Norms Business Relations Markets Behavioral Outcomes Practices Federal Aviation Administration SL-104

Management Culture Employees Communication Informed: People understand the hazards & risks Learning: The company learns from mistakes. Staff are updated on safety issues by management. Just: Employees know what is acceptable & unacceptable behavior. Reporting: All personnel freely share critical safety information.

AC 120-92 Federal Aviation Administration SL-105 To Support a Sound Safety Culture: 1. Senior management commitment 2. Senior management visibility 3. Safety accountability framework 4. Safety policy, goals, objectives, standards, and performance 5. Effective employee safety reporting system 6. Safety information system 7. Resource commitment Federal Aviation Administration SL-106 Training and Communication! Employees must understand the SMS Employees benefit from safety lessons learned Explain why particular actions are taken Develop awareness of hazards

Foster open reporting of safety concerns Initial and ongoing training Example Safety Promotion Video Federal Aviation Administration SL-107 Personnel Competencies and SMS Training Identification of competency requirements Selection and hiring criteria and standards Training Skill competency Initial training Recurrent training Continuous communication Federal Aviation Administration SL-108 ISD Processes SMS Processes

Analyze SRM: System/ Task Description & Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate Safety Critical Job Tasks Competencies (KSAs, etc) Target audience characteristics Training Tasks Qualification Standards (SRM risk Control) Courseware Medium Lessons, Exercises, Activities Tests, Evaluations SA: Monitoring

Training Delivery Records Testing/Qualifying SA: Assessment Student Evaluation/critique Instructor Critique OJT & performance observations Federal Aviation Administration SL-109 Commitment to SMS Documents alone will not guarantee development of a positive safety culture. Employees must see evidence of management commitment to SMS. Management Attitudes & Actions = the most important factor. ICAO Doc. 9859 Federal Aviation Administration

SL-110 Federal Aviation Administration SMS Guidance, Tools and Implementation Federal Aviation Administration SL-111 SMS Guidance and Tools ICAO Doc 9859: Safety Management Manual (SMM) FAA Order 8000.369: FAA SMS Guidance Order VS 8000.367: AVS Requirements Document SMS Standard: AC 120-92 Appendix 1

Voluntary Implementation Guidance (Multiple Docs) Federal Aviation Administration SL-112 ICAO and FAA SMS Framework Policy (Structure) Safety Risk Management Safety Assurance Safety Promotion (Culture) Elements: 3.1 Safety Performance Monitoring & Measurement Elements: Process 3.1.1 Continuous monitoring 2.1 Process

Internal audits operational depts. Hazard3.1.2 identification andby analysis Elements: 1.1Process 3.1.3 Internal evaluation Process 2.1.1 System and task analysis Safety Policy Elements: Process 3.1.4 External auditing of the SMS Process 2.1.2 Hazard identification 1.2 Management Commitment & Accountabilities 4.1 Process

3.1.5 Investigation Competencies and 2.2 assessment and Training control 1.3Risk Key Safety Personnel Process 3.1.6 Employee reporting and feedback syst. Process 4.1.1 Personnel Process Analyze safety Emergency Preparedness and risk Response 1.4Process 3.1.72.2.1 Analysis

requirements of data Process Assess safety risk SMS Documentation and Records 1.5Process 3.1.82.2.2 System assessment Process 4.1.2 Training Process 3.1.92.2.3 Preventive/corrective Process Control safety action risk 4.2 Communication and

Awareness Process 3.1.10 Management review 3.2 Management of Change 3.3 Continual Improvement Federal Aviation Administration SL-113 Federal Aviation Administration SL-114 SRM Start System Analysis (Design) Hazard Ident

Risk Analysis Risk Assmt Evaluate Controls 2.2.3(B) (2) & (3) Risk Control Inputs: 2.0(B)(2)(a),(b) & (d) New System System Change New Operational Procedure 2.1.1 2.1 Hazard Identification & Analysis 2.1.2 Inputs: 2.0(B)(2)(c)

From SA: 3.1.8(B)(3) 2.2.1 2.2 Risk Assessment & Control 2.2.2 Outputs: To SA 3.0(B)(1)(b) 2.2.3 Federal Aviation Administration SL-115 SA Inputs: From SRM 2.2.2(B) & 2.2.3 (B)(2)(b) To SA: 3.0(B)(1)(b) System

Operation Data Acquisition & Process Analysis Outputs: 3.1.8(B)(3) To SRM 2.0(B)(2)(c) System Assmt Preventive/ Corrective Action Per 2.1.1 including Risk Controls per 3.1.3 * 3.1 Safety Performance Monitoring

and Measurement 3.1.1 Continuous Monitoring 3.1.2 Internal Audits 3.1.3 Internal Evaluation 3.1.4 External Evaluation 3.1.5 Investigations 3.1.6 Employee Reporting How is this going to be analyzed? By whom? 3.1.7 Analysis of Data 3.1.8 System Assessment 3.1.10 Management Review 3.1.9 * Note: Each data source should be traceable through analysis (3.1.7(B)(1)), assessment and Corrective Action (3.1.9(B)(1) where necessary. Federal Aviation Administration

SL-116 SMS Implementation Should follow a Phased Approach The processes underlying the four components will be modularized Growth or increasing maturity will then be emphasized for each process and the system as a whole Federal Aviation Administration SL-117 SMS Voluntary Implementation: Pilot Projects Pilot Project activities commenced in 2007 Voluntary SMS development AFS combined effort Objectives are to Develop: Implementation strategies, Oversight interfaces, and

Gain experience for FAA and Service Providers Federal Aviation Administration SL-118 SMS Implementation Process 4 3 2 1 0 Continuous Improvement Proactive Processes Reactive Processes Planning & Organization Orientation &

Commitment Federal Aviation Administration SL-119 SMS Studies and Analysis 4 Phase 2: 2 1 0 Proactive Processes 3 Experience Reactive Processes Planning & Organization

Orientation & Commitment Continuous Improvement Phase 1: Readiness Federal Aviation Administration SL-120 Whos Involved in Implementation? The Operator/Service Provider The Certificate Management Organization (CMO, FSDO, CHDO) The SMS Standardization and Assistance Team (STAT) Federal Aviation Administration SL-121

Federal Aviation Administration Organizations Federal Aviation Administration SL-122 AFS SMS Program Office (PO) Authorized by Order FS1100.1A: AFS SMS Policy Focal point for SMS rulemaking Oversight and coordination of voluntary SMS implementation and testing Integration with oversight systems Policy, guidance, and tool development Training and outreach development and coordination Federal Aviation Administration SL-123 FAASTeam (FAA Safety Team)

Participate in STAT team efforts Conduct outreach sessions for CMTs and service providers Assist SMS PO in development of: Guidance material Promotional Material Development and Delivery of Training Promotional web presence for SMS Federal Aviation Administration SL-124 SMS Transition Assistance Team (STAT) Provides Standardization and Assistance to operators and CMTs in voluntary SMS projects Under direction of AFS SMS Program Office (PO) Team members currently from: SMS PO FAASTeam

HQ Policy Divisions All activities coordinated with appropriate certificate oversight offices Federal Aviation Administration SL-125 MITRE Corporation Involvement MITRE is a Federally-Funded Research and Development Corporation (FFRDC) MITRE assists the AFS SMS PO in: SMS Pilot Project (SMSPP) activities Studies and analysis to support development of SMS implementation and oversight strategies Federal Aviation Administration SL-126 Safety Management System Focus Group (SMSFG) Voluntary implementation users group Provides a two-way communications mechanism between SMS PO and

participants in voluntary implementation Provides a forum for knowledge sharing among participants Federal Aviation Administration SL-127 Carelessness and overconfidence are more dangerous than deliberately accepted risk Wilbur Wright, 1901 Contact: SMS Program Office Manager Don Arendt, Ph.D. (703) 661-0516 [email protected] Wilbur Wright gliding, 1901 Photographs: Library of Congress Federal Aviation Administration SL-128

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