The Renaissance and Reformation -

The Renaissance and Reformation -

Scan graphic? MARTIN LUTHER German Priest Saw problems in the Church Church believed salvation gained from faith + good work Luther thought faith alone gained salvation Oct

31, 1517 Posted 95 Theses on church door in Wittenburg, Ger His criticisms of Church 1000s of copies distributed through Germany The Reformation Begins By 1521 Luther moving toward spilt from Church Wanted Ger princes to overthrow Papal

power in Germany & est a German Church By Jan 1521 Luther excommunicated Summoned by Imperial Diet of HRE to Worms Called by Emperor Charles V, wanted Luther to change his ideas, Luther NO Edict of Worms issued, making Luther an outlaw Luther kept in hiding by his prince Lutheranism

Followers of Luthers religious practices Gained support of many German princes 1524, German peasants revolted & hoped Luther would support them, because Luther needed the princes support, he did not help the peasants Germany in turmoil Catholic? Lutheran? To achieve peace HRE Emperor Charles V accepted the Peace of Augsburg (allowed Ger princes to choose the faith of their region)

Protestantism Spreads Zwingli Ulrich Zwingli priest in Zurich, Switzerland Zwinglian Reformation

Banned all religious relics & images Whitewashed all church interiors No music in church services Does note merge w/Luther b/c cant agree with the meaning of communion Protestantism Spreads Calvin John

Calvin replaces Zwingli (killed in rel war) French, fled for safety to Switzerland 1536 began reforming Geneva, Switz. Created a church govt of elect & laity Used consistory (moral police) Sent missionaries thru Eur to convert Cath. Ideas spread FR, Neth, Scot Mid 16th C Calvinism more pop than Lutheranism

Reformation in England Political, not religious motives for reform Henry VIII King of England Needs a male heir to carry on the Tudor Dynasty Married Catherine of Aragon (Aunt of Charles V,HRE Emperor) Have a daughter, Mary No son, so Henry wants a divorce! In the Catholic Church, you

need an annulment, granted by the Church. The Pope grants it for a King. Reformation in England (cont) The Pope refused to grant the annulment, too political (King of Eng vs. HRE Emperor) After a long argument, Henry decided to break from Catholic Church Archbishop of Canterbury granted

divorce Act of Supremacy(1534) est Church of Eng King control over doctrine, appointments, etc Dissolves Cath claims, sells land & Henry & his wives Henry was desperate for a

son. So much so he married 6 times!! The saying goes Divorced, Beheaded, Died Divorced, Beheaded, The Church of England 1547

Henry died His 9 year old son, Edward VI, took the throne The Church of England- aka Anglican Church Became more Protestant Angering Catholics 1553

Edward dies His half-sister Mary (Catholic) takes throne She wants to restore Catholicism Bloody Mary has 300+ Prot burned as heretics Increases tensions btw Cath & Prot

The Catholic Reformation Protestantism spreading rapidly through Eur Church sees need to reform Raises the standards of the clergy Inspired the Church with a renewed zeal and morale Contributed significantly to producing the Catholic Church as we know it today. Pillars

of Catholic Reformation 1. Reform of Papacy 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) 3. Council of Trent The Papacy Corruption had to be addressed

Pope Paul II led papal reform Oversaw the creation of the Jesuit order Opened the Council of Trent Revived the Inquisition The Jesuits Most

significant agency of Catholic reform Founded by Ignatius of Loyola Spanish soldier Injured in battle Had a conversion during recovery, dedicated himself to the Church

Role of Jesuits Missionaries Convert former and nonCatholics Urged the religious education of children Devoted to religious and secular education Secondary schools Colleges/Universities

Seminaries Council of Trent Met over 18 year period (1545-63) Reaffirmed Catholic teaching Including 7 sacraments Maintained salvation was gained through faith and good works More

strict rules for clergy Incl more education for priests Each Banned diocese established a seminary indulgences!! The Inquisition

Churchs way to suppress heresy Infamous for its cruelty Followed strictly in Spain, Portugal and Rome Some countries, like France,


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