The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria

The Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria

Gram Positive Bacteria Grouped based on C + G ratio (nitrogen bases cytosine and guanine) Divided into 2 Phyla Firmicutes (low C + G ) Actinobacteria (High C + G) Firmicutes Low G + C ratio Includes endospore forming and wall-less bacteria

Phylum: Firmicute 3 Classes: Clostridia Bacilli Mollicutes (mycoplasmas) Clostridia Clostridiales

Clostridium Obligate anaerobes Endospores C. tenani tetanus C. botulinum - botulism Epulopiscium Very large bacteria Huge genome

Endosymbiont in surgeonfish Reproduces by releasing cells through slit Single Thiomargarita cell Thiomargarita gamma Proteobacteria

Anaerobic chemolithotroph that oxidizes sulfur and reduces nitrates Even larger than Epulopiscium Large vacuole to increase surface area to volume ratio Fruit Fly

Bacilli Bacillales Includes both rods and cocci Includes medically/ commercially important genera Bacillus

Endospore-producing rods Aerobe or facultative anaerobe B. anthracis- anthrax B. thuringiensis insecticide

B. cereus - food borne illness Staphylococcus - grapelike clusters of cocci

facultative anaerobes Yellow pigmented colonies common inhabitant of skin and the nasal cavity grows in foods with high osmotic pressure S. epidermidis and S. aureus

S. aureus highly virulent surgical wound infections toxic shock syndrome toxin

enterotoxin - induces vomiting exfolatin toxin scalded skin syndrome Folliculitis Impetigo MRSA and VRSA Lactobacillales Commercially important Aerotolerant or facultative anaerobes

Lactobacillus Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenting rod common in vagina, intestinal tract, and oral cavity used in production of pickles, buttermilk, and yogurt Streptococcus chains of cocci

Aerotolerant; Lactic acid fermenter Pathogenic strains produce multiple extra-cellular enzymes and toxins Responsible for more illnesses and a greater variety of diseases than any other group of bacteria Beta-hemolytic streptococci S. pyogenes

Impetigo, strep throat, scarlet fever, necrotizing fascitis Alpha-hemolytic streptococci S. pneumoniae Pneumonia, ear infections, sinusitis, meningitis S. mutans

Dental carries Listeria Facultative anaerobe L. monocytogenes Contaminates dairy products Psychrotroph Survives inside phagocytes

May be responsible for stillbirths and birth defects Mollicutes (mycoplasmas) Mycoplasmatales

Wall-less, highly pleomorphic Very small (0.1 - 0.24 m) May produce filaments Degenerative evolution Mycoplasma M. pneumoniae walking pneumonia

Spiroplasma Corkscrew morphology plant pathogen and parasite of plant feeding insects Actinobacteria High G + C

Mycobacterium acid fast; aerobic rods; filamentous growth non-endospore former; mycolic acid M. tuberculosis tuberculosis M. leprae - leprosy Corynebacterium

Club shaped, metachromatic granules C. diphtheriae diphtheria Propionibacterium propionic acid fermenter Important in swiss cheese production P. acnes commonly found on

human skin; primary cause of bacterial acne Gardnerella gram variable; highly plemorphic G. vaginalis bacterial vaginitis Actinomycetes Common soil inhabitants

Branching filaments Asexual spores Frankia, Streptomyces, Actinomyces Streptomyces most antibiotics are produced by Streptomyces species about 500 known species asexual spores (conidospores)

Produce gaseous geosmin Actinomyces facultative anaerobes mouth and throat of animals A. israelii - actinomycosis (tissue-destroying disease affecting the head, neck, or lungs) Frankia nitrogen fixing bacteria Forms root nodules with alder trees

Domain Archaea Highly diverse morphology and physiology Frequently inhabit extreme environments Three primary groups are halophiles, thermophiles and methanogens Currently classified into 3 Phyla Crenarchaeota

Euryarchaeota Korarchaeota Euryarchaeota Gram+ to gram variable halophiles, methanogens and a few thermophiles Halobacteriales Obligate halophiles Bacteriorhodopsin based light capturing system

Methanobacteriales Methanogens Convert CO2, H2 and organic acids into methane Largest known group of archaea Gram +; Obligate

anaerobes Crenarchaeota Gram-; most thermophiles Sulfolobales acidophilic thermophilic sulfur metabolizers Desulfurococcales Hyperthermophiles

Korarchaeota No members have ever been observed Known only from environmental rRNA samples

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