1 The Next Generation Learner Diana G. Oblinger, Ph.D. EDUCAUSE Live, July 21 2004 Copyright Copyright Diana Diana G. G. Oblinger, Oblinger, 2004. 2004. This This work work is is the the intellectual intellectual property property of of the the author. author. Permission Permission is
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from the the author. author. 2 Kids 3 Children age 6 and under 2.01 hours / day playing outside 1.58 hours using computers 40 minutes reading or being read to of children have used a 48% computer 4-6 year olds use a computer 27% daily a computer several 39% use
times a week 30% have played video games Play outside 2.0 Use computer 1.0 Reading 0 Kaiser Family Foundation, 2003 4 Teens web use
100% use the Internet to seek and jobs information on colleges, careers 94% use the Internet for school research 41% use email and instant messaging to contact teachers or schoolmates about class work The Internet is their primary communication tool 81% email friends and relatives 70% use instant messaging to keep in touch 56% prefer the Internet to the telephone Lenhart, Simon & Graziano, 2001; NetDay, 2003
5 What kids want from the net New & exciting Learn more/better Community Show others what I can do Be heard 0 Base: Kids 9-17 20 40 60 Percentage
80 100 Grunwald Associates, 2003 6 What would you do without the Internet? How would your schoolwork be affected if you no longer had access to the Internet anywhere? We could not do any schoolwork Devastatedeverything would be so much harder and
take so much longer to do We depend upon having the Internet now We have to have the most current, up to date information to be accurate NetDay, 2003 7 College students The Net Generation Born in or after 1982 Gravitate toward group activity 8 out of 10 say its cool to be smart Focused on grades and performance Busy with extracurricular activities Identify with parents values;
8 feel close to parents Respectful of social conventions and institutions Fascination for new technologies Racially and ethnically diverse Howe & Strauss, 2003 9 Freshman experience base
Ctrl + Alt + Del is as basic as ABC They have never been able to find the return key Computers have always fit in their backpacks They have always had a personal identification number Paul Newman has always made salad dressing Bert and Ernie are old enough to be their parents Gas has always been unleaded --Beloit College, 2003 Todays learners
Digitally literate Mobile Always on Experiential Community-oriented 10 11 Media literacy By age 21, the average person will have spent 10,000 hours video games
25000 200,000 emails 20000 Under 5,000 hours reading 20,000 hours TV 10,000 hours cell phone 15000 10000 5000 Television E-mails Video
Games Cell Phone Reading 0 Prensky, 2003 Internet: A social technology Net Geners use the Internet primarily as a social technology While at home, students use the Internet to maintain multiple lines of communication with others
IM used for quick communication (e.g., Whats up?) Email or phone used for longer communication Home computer is repository of important information; other devices used to transport the material (laptop, PDA) 12 --Lextant, 2003 13 Out of class experience The largest discretionary block of time for students is outside of class
Students have clearer memories of singing or writing or volunteering than of a class 4/5th of students said the specific incident that changed them profoundly took place outside of the classroom Learners construct their own courses of learning, often facilitated by technology Kuh, et al.,1994 & Light, 2001
NetGen learning preferences Teams, peer-to-peer Structure Engagement & experience Visual & kinesthetic Things that matter 14 Net Gen strengths 15 Multitasking Goal orientation Positive attitudes Collaborative style Technology savvy Raines, 2002 16
College Internet use 79% Internet has a positive impact on academic experience 73% Use the Internet more than the library for research 72% Check email every day 60% believe the Internet has improved relationships with classmates 56% believe the Internet has improved relationship with professors 46% Allows them to express ideas that they would not have expressed in class Jones, 2002 Rising expectations
The rising expectations of computer-literate constituents are difficult to meet Service expectations Self-service Customer-service Immediacy Customization Choice Students want customizable learning experiences They are more vocal in expressing their opinions
17 Non-traditional becomes traditional More than half of undergraduates are women 80% are employed One-third are other than white 43% are 24 or older (i.e., of non-traditional college age) 39% are employed full-time 10% or undergraduates have a disability
Number of students (ages 5-24) who speak a language other than English at home more than doubled from 1979 to 1999 NCES, 2003 18 19 Adult learners 35% of undergraduates are adult learners 80% of adult learners 70% of all adult learners are female
38 is the median age of undergraduate adult learners 45% of adult learners are over years of age are employed Swail, 2002 citing NCES, 2002 Risk factors 20 Risk factors associated with not completing a degree Part-time enrollment
Delaying entry into post-secondary ed Lack of high school diploma Having children Being a single parent Financially independent Working full time while enrolled --NCES, 2003 21 Generational comparison 22 Product of the environment Baby Boomers TV generation Typewriters
Memos Generation X Video games Computers Net Gen The Web Instant messaging
Online communities Email Multiple, mobile devices 23 Attitudes TV Generation PC Generation Net Generation
Web What is it? Web is a tool Web is oxygen Community Personal Extended personal Virtual Perspective Local Multi-national
Global Career One career Multiple careers Loyalty Corporation Self Soul Authority Hierarchy Unimpressed
Self as expert Multiple reinvention Savage, 2003 24 Age vs. online preferences 70 63% 60 55% Students who were very satisfied with Web-based learning by generation
Dzuiban, 2004 25 Implications 26 Infrastructure Pervasive learning Mobile Federated devices Ubiquitous Internet
Presence aware Integrated & aggregated Interactive Social 27 28 Digital archives http://valley.vcdh.virginia.edu/ Learning objects Any digital resource that can be reused to support learning
Customizes learning experiences 29 Fosters new relationships through sharing content Streamlines course development Metros, 2003 Cyberinfrastructure Remote data collection First-person learning Development of expertise NSF IIS-0329837 --Sanderson, 2004
30 31 32 Pedagogy 33 Interaction Concept inventories Student response units Immediate results keep students engaged
Allows real-time modification of instruction Two metal balls are the same size, but one weighs twice as much as the other. The balls are dropped from the top of a two story building at the same instant of time. The time it takes the balls to reach the ground below will be: A. About half as long for the heavier ball B. About half as long for the lighter ball C. About the same time for both balls D. Considerably less for the lighter ball, but not necessarily half as long E. Considerably less for the heavier ball, but not necessarily half as long Simulations 34
http://workbench.concord.org/modeler/ss3.html Visualizing problems 35 36 SCALE-UP Student Centered Activities for Large Enrollment Undergraduate Programs Class time spent on tangibles and ponderables Failure rates are reduced
dramatically Problem solving, conceptual understanding and attitudes are improved --Beichner & Saul, 2003 37 Augmented reality Computer simulation on handheld computer triggered by real world location Combines physical world and virtual world contexts Embeds learners in authentic situations
Engages users in a socially facilitated context Klopfer & Squire, 2003 Environmental detectives Players briefed about rash of local health problems linked to the environment Provided with background information and budget Need to determine source of pollution
by drilling sampling wells and ultimately remediate with pumping wells Work in teams representing different interests (EPA, industry, etc.) 38 Klopfer & Squire, 2003 39 Results Augmented reality: engaging and easy Cooperation and competition in game play
Gender patterns appear (males are number driven; females are interpersonally driven) Klopfer & Squire, 2003 Questions to ask How well do we understand our students? How interactive are our learning environments? Are there ways that technology could increase that interaction? What types of physical spaces will lead to greater learning? to greater community?
Do we meet student expectations for service and convenience? Do we have an infrastructure that enables ubiquitous access? 40 41 [email protected] 2004 All rights reserved.
Gastrointestinal Definitions. ... Accessory Organs-outside of or to side of GI tract, but are connected-teeth, salivary glands, biliary system: liver, gallbladder, pancreas. ... Fundus/fundic area part that is rounded on left side of body.
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