The Importance of Multi-Scale Analyses in Avian Habitat ...

The Importance of Multi-Scale Analyses in Avian Habitat ...

Landscaping for Wildlife Mark Hostetler Extension Wildlife Specialist Department of Wildlife Ecology & Conservation IFAS, University of Florida Overview

Florida Cooperative Extension Service - Wildlife Landscaping for wildlife Birds Butterflies Design process

Florida bird monitoring program How to certify your yard Florida Cooperative Extension Service Wildlife Who are we? Department of Wildlife Ecology and

Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida What do we do? In issues regarding wildlife Advise the public Develop educational programs Disseminate information

Conduct research Available Wildlife Information? Landscaping for wildlife Conservation and management of wildlife Human/wildlife conflict

Detailed information on species Wildlife education programs Where to Go for Info? Web site: Print on demand Links and information

Educational programs Call your local extension office Call Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission or visit

Landscaping for Wildlife All animals need: Food Cover Water Space

Habitat Photo by Joe Schaefer Birds?

Y.-rumped Warbler Northern Mockingbird R.-thr. Hummingbird Red-tailed Hawk

O.-crowned Warbler Life History Stages of a Bird Egg

Baby Bird Immature Adult Reproductive Adult Seasons of a Bird

Breeding Wintering (non-breeding season) Migrating (Fall and Spring Migration ) Range Map House Wren

Summer Winter Year-round Species

Northern Mockingbird Carolina Chickadee Tufted Titmouse Screech Owl

Migratory Species Red-eyed Vireo American Goldfinch

American Redstart Partial Migrants Your Yard Can Serve As: A breeding site

A wintering site A stop-over site (A dispersal site) Different species may appear in your yard at different times of the year

Providing Habitat for Birds FOOD Provide Insects Photos courtesy of

Insect Eaters Yellow Warbler Great-crested Flycatcher

Hairy Woodpecker Insect Habitat = Bird Habitat Plant native species Save dead trees (snags) Reduce pesticide use - Spot treat

- Use alternative methods of insect control Reduce the amount of mowed lawn - Design islands of wild areas Suet/Peanut Butter Feeder During winter, stock a

wire cage with peanut butter or suet Provide Seed Seed Eaters

House Finch Tufted Titmouse White-crowned Sparrow Blue Jay

Seed Feeders Hanging feeders Platform feeders Provide Fruit

Plant native fruit species Many different plant species produce fruit (hollies, cedar trees, beauty berries, wax myrtles) Beautyberry

Holly spp. Provide Nectar Plant species with red, tubular flowers

Trumpet vine Provide a hummingbird feeder ( cup of sugar to 1 cup of hot water)

Fruit and Nectar Eaters Ruby-throated Hummingbird Cedar Waxwing Northern Mockingbird

Brown Thrasher Provide Meat Meat Eaters Loggerhead Shrike

Barred Owl Great-horned Owl COVER Cavities

Cavities are in short supply in neighborhoods Primary Cavity Nesters Pileated Woodpecker

Hairy Woodpecker Hairy Woodpecker Secondary Cavity Nesters Photos of owls, titmice, chickadees, etc.

Tufted Titmouse Carolina Chickadee Great-crested Flycatcher Eastern Bluebird

Providing Cavities Leave a snag on your property (woodpeckers) Provide a nesting box (secondary cavity

nesters) Vegetation for Cover Plant or maintain a variety of plant species Increase vertical height diversity

Organized Chaos Stop mowing! WATER Water

Bird baths Running water Ponds Space

Example: Trees and a Bird Scale-dependent Decisions of a Wren and a Hawk Tract Home Range Habitat Patches

Food Patches Tract Home Range Habitat Patches Food Patches

Different Birds Make Decisions at Different Scales Larger birds = broader scales and larger patch sizes Smaller birds = limited scales and smaller patch sizes

How To Plan For Space? Be aware of habitats surrounding your property and plan accordingly Think about the size of the bird Talk with your neighbors (e.g., plan bigger patches) Experiment! Embrace uncertainty!

Summary Bird Habitat food, cover, water , & space Life Stages breeding, wintering, & migration Food - plant for insects, fruit, nectar & small

animals; provide bird feeders Summary Cover - vertical height diversity; wild areas; keep snags, provide nest boxes Water ponds, bird baths, running water

Space scale and bird size, talk with neighbors, group vegetation Landscaping for Butterflies Giant Swallowtail By Joe Schaefer

Habitat for Butterflies Life History of Butterflies (Lepidopterans) Egg

By Sharon David Butterflies vs. Moths Butterflies Most fly during day Most are bright

colors Have slender bodies Antennae slender & have knobs at tip Most rest with wings folded above body


Most fly at night Many have drab colors Have stout bodies Antennae can be feathery, no knobs Rest with wings

horizontal Food for Caterpillars Host plants must be tailored to specific butterflies Some plants are hosts to several different butterflies (passion vine Gulf fritillary,

Zebra long wing) Some feed on one specific plant Pipevine swallowtail feeds on Dutchmans Pipe Food for Caterpillars An easy way to provide larval food: Do not mow certain sections of the yard!

If you do plant a garden, dont forget host plants for larvae! Food for Adult Butterflies Phlox

Milkweed Purple Coneflower Thistle Photos courtesy of

Additional Food for Adult Butterflies Rotting fruits: oranges, apples, bananas

By Joe Schaefer Cover for Butterflies Increase vertical height diversity Plan for natural areas Brush Pile

Butterfly boxes do not really work Provide Basking Area Provide lots of sunny areas Place flat stones in these sunny areas

Provide Puddling Areas Include damp areas or shallow puddles using sand or dirt as base Provides source of minerals, especially sodium By Joe Schaefer

Reduce Pesticide Use Almost all pesticides are non-specific, they kill both the pest species and butterflies Spot treat areas Space for Butterflies

Group flowers and host plants together, make large patches Yard contains sunny areas, puddling areas, and woody areas for cover Think about the landscape near your property

Benefit to Pollinators Your butterfly garden attracts a whole host of insect pollinators Important for production of vegetables and fruit !

Summary Food - flowering plants for adults and host plants for caterpillars Cover - dense vegetation or a brush pile Basking and puddling areas

Reduce pesticide use Space group plants; what surrounds your yard?

Where to Find Info on Butterfly - Plant Associations? Florida Butterfly Gardening Book Marc & Maria Minnow

Design Process First year Third year

Get to Know Your Property OBSERVATION Shady areas Wet areas High traffic areas Existing plants Views

Topography Step 1 Draw a Base Plan Sketch your site (to scale) Draw property lines

House, driveway Fences, any other human-built structure Step 2 Sketch Existing Landscape Structure

Water (where is it? where does it go?)

Views (good views and unsightly views) Type of soil Plants (what kind, where are they?) Topography (low and high ground) Step 3

Checklist of Desired Uses Functional areas humans Functional areas wildlife Step 4

Create a Diagram Draw your future landscape Step 5

Summary - Landscaping for Birds & Butterflies Refer to Habitat - food, cover, water, and space Take time to design Bird Monitoring Program

Birds? Y.-rumped Warbler Northern Mockingbird

R.-thr. Hummingbird Red-tailed Hawk O.-crowned Warbler Objectives

Create simple, standardized methods to survey birds Create a Web site linked to a data base where participants can enter and view collected bird data

Utility Can measure how bird diversity changes over time Participants can compare results and interact with other wildlife landscapers Participants interact with their environment Added component for any educational or experiential program

Point Count Stationary survey of birds in a given area Used for small lots or landscapes where it is difficult to walk through

Point Count 10 minutes 20 m Transect Count

A route is walked and birds are counted on each side Used for large properties or surveys of neighborhoods Transect Count

20 m 20 m Enter and View Data Participants enter data through the Web site (need User ID and Survey Code)

Anybody can view the results online THE WEB SITE! Florida Bird Monitoring Program Florida Wildlife Habitat Program Certification Program: Apply through the wildlife extension web site Participants describe current yard, wildlife seen and future landscaping plans We evaluate and make recommendations Upon certification, participants receive a certificate and sign

Summary Wildlife Info: Landscaping for birds and butterflies: - Food, Cover, Water, and Space Bird monitoring program Certify your yard

Acknowledgements Developed by: Dr. Mark Hostetler, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, IFAS, University of Florida, 2001. Acknowledgements

Photo & Sound Credits: Mark Hostetler, Joe Schafer, and Dan Sudia USGS Patuxent Bird Center (Bird Photos): FL Museum of Natural History: Flower Photos: Florida Wildflower Showcase :

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