The Hellenistic Age

The Hellenistic Age

Alexander The Great and The Hellenistic Age Conflict in the Greek World The Persian Wars In 499 B.C., the Ionian Greeks rebelled against Persian Rule. The Greek city-states declared war against Persia - the Greek city-states win!! After the Persian Wars, Athens formed an alliance among the city-states called the Delian League. The Delian League was meant to unify the city-states, promote peace, and defend Greece from invaders. In 431 B.C., wars broke out between Athens

and Sparta because many Greeks disliked Athenian control. These were known as the Peloponnesian Wars. This signals the end of Athenian control of the Greek World. The Peloponnesian Wars Greek Achievements Despite political trouble and wars, Greek thinkers, writers, and artists made many important achievements. Philosophy and Government

In Athens philosophers used rhetoric, or skillful speaking, to advance their careers. The 3 famous Greek philosophers were: Socrates ~ developed the Socratic method to find truth and self-knowledge. Plato ~ described an ideal government in The Republic and advocated the rule of a philosopher-King. Aristotle ~ tried to find the best form of government and promoted the idea of the golden mean a government that is not too extreme. One of the greatest Greek rulers was Pericles, who helped poor Athenians participate in government by paying citizens for their government work.

Art and Architecture The Greeks also made advances in art and architecture promoting balance, order, and beauty. The greatest piece of Greek Architecture was the Parthenon, a temple for the Goddess Athena. Literature and Drama Greek writers composed tragedies and comedies. Actors played the roles wearing masks. Tragedies ~ plays that told stories of human suffering and ended in disaster.

Greatest playwrights were Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. Comedies ~ plays that were humorous and made fun of people and customs. The most famous comedian was Aristophanes. Greek historian, Herodotus, was called the father of history. History Philip II Unites Greece The conflicts among the Greek city-states made them weak and vulnerable to invaders. In 338 B.C., Athens fell to the Macedonian army led by

King Philip II this marked the end of Ancient Greece. King Philip united all of the Greek city-states under his rule for the first time in history!! King Philip dreamed of conquering the Persian Empire. However, he was assassinated before he could pursue his dream. His son, Alexander the Great, became King at the 20 years old. He would pursue and achieve his fathers dream. Alexander was very smart and was tutored by Aristotle in Greek literature, math and science. He was also one of the greatest military geniuses!

Alexander the Great Before becoming King, Alexander was one of the best soldiers in the Macedonian military. As King, he began to organize the forces needed to conquer Persia. To do so, he developed the phalanx. Phalanx ~ a military strategy where soldiers carried overlapping shields and long spears. Alexander the Great successfully defeated the Persian empire under Darius III. This was a HUGE accomplishment because the Persian empire stretched from Egypt to India.

Afterwards, Alexander moved into India. However, his troops were too tired to continue and they turned back. On the way back to Greece, Alexander came down with a fever and died at the age of 33. PALANX SARISSA SPEAR (13-21 Feet Long) Alexanders Empire The Hellenistic Age

Although Alexander's empire soon crumbled after his death, his legacy continued for hundreds of years known as the Hellenistic Age. His most significant achievement was the spread of Greek culture across the Mediterranean and East. Alexander founded many cities across the empire. The local people assimilated, or absorbed, Greek culture and ideas. In addition, Alexander established the city of Alexandria (in Egypt) which would become a cultural capital with laboratories, libraries, lecture halls, and a zoo.

Alexanders empire also gave women more power they were able to leave home and learn to read and write! Advances of the Hellenistic Age The cities of the Hellenistic world made great advances in the arts and sciences. Philosophy Zeno founded a new philosophy called Stoicism, which urged people to avoid desires and disappointments of life. Math and Science

Pythagorean Theorem (a2+b2=c2): (Pythagoras) formula to calculate the sides of a right triangle. Heliocentric Theory: (Aristarchus) theory that the sun was the center of the universe & the earth revolved around the sun. Hippocratic Oath: (Hippocrates) set of ethical standards for doctors. Drama This was also the golden age of Greek drama.

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