THE DURHAM REPORT - University of British Columbia
THE DURHAM REPORT GOVERNORS BRIEFING #1 - Chief Pontiac 7 yrs war In 1760 allowed British army to travel in territory unhindered to access surrendered French Forts Under British rule, Pontiacs people were not going to be welcome back at these Forts
Settlers came fast & took over traditional hunting grounds Ottawa & Ojibwe #1 - Chief Pontiac 7 yrs war 1762 supported by every tribe from Lake
Superior to Lower Mississippi, led a campaign to expel the British May 1763 every group attacks the nearest Fort at the same time He was betrayed in his surprise-attack on Detroit British Army is mightypeace concluded in 1766 Stabbed & killed 3 years later started a bloody feud
1776 - American Revolution 1776 Americans gain independence from Britian with the help of France Americans who do not believe in independence moved to Quebec Called Loyalists because they were loyal to Great Britain RESULT: Quebec began to
have people who spoke English as well as French #2 THAYENDANEGEA Joseph Brant Went to England to defend traditional territory occupation against the American settlers - 1785 Asked for confirmation that aboriginal people loyal to the crown could expect
military support from the British government if American settlers encroached too far on traditional lands Leader of Six Nations Confederacy Britain refused would rather not get involved
RESULT: 3 full-scale American retaliatory invasions against the settlers #2 THAYENDANEGEA Joseph Brant Idea: Land belonged to all Aboriginal people Land negotiations with individual tribes were invalid Although tribes did negotiate
individually, this is an important beginning to a united movement for aboriginal rights Leader of Six Nations Confederacy #3 1812 - Chief Tecumseh Shawnee Chief Military leader in 1812
Distrusted the British, but found the Americans more offensive to native people Attacked Detroit with BROCK This is a man! Fearful of how many people could be in the darkDetroit surrenders without a shot! RESULT: Huge British victory
Tecumsehs death Tecumsehs death was the end of serious resistance in the Northwest. Peace of Ghent nothing for First Nations Ottawa Chief Naywash said: Since our Great Chief Tecumtha [sic] has been killed we do not listen to one another,
we do not rise together. 181 Political Boundaries Join control in Oregon From 42 North and 5440' North (the southern boundary of Russia's Alaska territory). MANIFEST DESTINY Americans were destined to
take over all of North Americacoast to coast 1844: Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! MANIFEST DESTINY This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico.
MANIFEST DESTINY This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico. By the end of the century, expansionists were employing quasi-Darwinist reasoning to argue that because its Anglo-Saxon heritage made America supremely fit, it had become the nations manifest destiny
to extend its influence beyond its continental boundaries into the Pacific and Caribbean basins. 1911 MEXICAN REVOLUTION 1812 British Identity Returning to the question at handhow did
the war of 1812 contribute to a British identity in Canada? 1812 British Identity French and British worked together against US, who tried to invade
Canada Canada is not America for the second time Emigration from Britain, 1815-1850 Population growth exploding in Europe Improved farming methods - SCIENCE
Industrial Revolution but jobs are scarce 800,000 migrants came to Canada 60% are from Britain and speak English Asian & Americans look for gold Cheap or free land Built infrastructure from scratch Emigration from Britain, 1815-1850
Underground Railroad, US Civil War Irish potato famine (six year) from 1845 Killed over 1 million ppl World Events impacts on migrations in Canada Underground Railroad, US Civil War, 18401860 Fight to abolish slavery
Slavery already over in French & British Empires Opium Wars in China (1840-60) Britain selling China opium Chinese outlawed opium China forced to trade & legalize opium Irish POTATO FAMINE 1845-52 Ireland Park - Toronto
Ireland Park Toronto Ireland Park - Toronto British Identity French Canadiens and British
Canadians resented British rule British govt is too far away to understand their needs Govt in Lower Canada Government est. by Constitutional Act in 1791 Power limited by governors and councils
Members of legislative councils were voted in for life Political party with most power in unelected council was Chateau Clique Believed that power should be in hands of a few capable people Wanted the Roman Catholic church to stay in power Lower Canada Rebellion - 1837
1837 Louis Papineau organized a revolt to establish Quebec as a separate country PARTI PATRIOTE PARTI CANADIEN 75% Patriots are elected Send England 92 Resolutions Wait 3 years, Governor Rejects REBELLION OF 1837
Key Battle St. Eustache- rebellion collapses British troops charged and the rebellion lost Papineau flees to U.S. Government of Upper Canada Government established by Constitutional Act in 1791 Two main political groups Family Compact
(Tories) Businessmen and elite Lieutenant Governor Bond Head represented their views Government of Upper Canada Government established by
Constitutional Act in 1791 Two main political groups Family Compact (Tories) Businessmen and elite Lieutenant Governor Bond Head represented
their views Family Compact: A small group of powerful elites in the colony of upper Canada Defended tradition (The things that had always been done) and opposed change Believed power should be in the hands of a few capable people (themselves) Believed the Church of England should be powerful in
the colony Were loyal to Great Britain and the British government Had power to stop any laws passed by the legislative assembly Most Family Compact members were British immigrants who arrived before the 1800s The Reformers Reformers Led by
Robert Baldwin and William Lyon Mackenzie What did they oppose? Opposed the power of the Family Compact Wanted changes in government and society of Upper Canada Divided into moderate (led by Baldwin) and radical (led by Mackenzie) Gurley: sent a questionnaire to farmers; bring poor
people to farm in Canada Upper Canada Rebellion - 1838 When the Lower Canada rebellion began, Bond Head sends troops to seize Toronto Mackenzie later organizes Upper Canada revolt beginning at Montgomerys Tavern March down Yonge Street, Toronto Attack lasted about half hour
Rebel forces dispersed Results: Upper Canada Rebellion was very short and disorganized Bond Head was recalled in 1837 he was replaced with Sir George Arthur Lord Durham assigned to report grievances among the colonists and find a way to appease them
Lord Durhams report led to the Union of Upper and Lower Canada into the province of Canada in 1840 Change in Britains Colonial Policy Britain was starting to rethink its colonial policies in the 1840s. The purpose of having colonies was to provide cheap natural resources for the imperial power. However, the colonies were becoming very expensive ($ $$).
Therefore the British government decided to stop giving its colonies special trading protection and to trade freely with other nations. As a result, it affected Britains attitude towards its colonies. LORD DURHAM IS SENT OUT Lord Durhams observations Britain sends Earl of Durham Canadians want:
1. More control over government 2. All Provinces to unite > The British only wanted Quebec and Ontario to unite. All provinces together could create a successful rebellion. The Durham Report & the British Identity Durham refers to French Canadians as backward and illiterate. Argues that
irresponsible leaders easily manipulate them. Called the Canadiens devoid of history and literature They lacked in anything that elevates people Proposed assimilation of the French Thought this would eliminate racial antagonism that had paralyzed Lower Canada Thought it would give French Canadians more opportunity as English would be
language of business and social promotion The Durham Report Two Major Recommendations 1. The two colonies of Upper and Lower Canada should become one colony called the United Province of Canada. *This would give the English a majority
and help unite English speaking people The Durham Report 2. The new united colony should have responsible government. *All other local powers would be handled by the colonies.
*On matters involving only colony, the Governor would be advised only be his Executive Council with no input from the British Government. *The Executive Council members would be chosen by the leaders of the largest group in the Legislative Assembly rather than by the governor *Members of the Executive Council would keep their jobs only as long as they had the support of more than half the members of the Legislative Assembly, rather than for as long as the governor
chose to keep them on the council. Partner Activity (Groups of Two) Lord Durham had two recommendations. Who benefited or were happy because of the first recommendation? Why? Who benefited or was
happy because of the second recommendation? Why? RESULT: Act of Union 1840 English is the only official language. The Act of Union, 1841 The British government acted on Lord
Durhams recommendations. The Act of Union of 1841 joined Upper and Lower Canada together as the United Province of Canada. This united Upper and Lower Canada and is a first step towards
confederations. The Act of Union, 1841 Aim: To unite the into colonies of Canada into a single unit, and to give the Englishspeaking people control of the newly named colony. Important Points: The system of government was to be the same as in
the past. Established English as the official language It united both colonies under one government. Partner Activity (Groups of Two) How was the Act of Union of 1840 an attempt to resolve the issues raised by the 1837 and 1838 Rebellions in Lower and Upper Canada?
To what extent was the Act of Union of 1840 an attempt to provide the populations of Quebec and Ontario with increased control over their own affairs? Change in Britains Colonial Policy Britain was starting to rethink its colonial policies in the 1840s. The purpose of having colonies was to provide cheap natural resources for the imperial
power. However, the colonies were becoming very expensive ($$$). Therefore the British government decided to stop giving its colonies special trading protection and to trade freely with other nations. As a result, it affected Britains attitude towards its colonies. People Passport
For each person, provide the following information: 1. Why is the person a significant historical figure? Events, accomplishments, impacts? 2. Citations provide links to your sources 3. Include a visual - cite your image source 3 pts per person Letter to the Queen
OPENING POINT EXAMPLE POINT EXAMPLE CONCLUSION PARTI 2
Canada First Of course there were some English Canadians who wanted an independent Canada. However, this Canada First movement was small in number and resentful of the
Canadiens the only other group who supported a distinctly Canadian nationalism. Charles Mair of Canada First Lord Durham- 1839 March on Toronto
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