The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty

The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty

The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty Nicholas II Case Study Modern History Preliminary Course By S.Angelo History Head Teacher East Hills Girls Technology High School 2007 Tsar Nicholas II - Main Issues Wanted to maintain the autocracy for his heir Alexis Lacked the personality & skills necessary to

rule as an autocrat Weak, mediocre ministers; often corrupt Forced to grant October Manifesto Failed to follow through with political reforms Failed to maintain support/confidence of elite Nicholas II Ascension 1894 Alexander III, father of Nicholas, a powerful, domineering man, dies aged 49 Nicholas ascends to the throne at the age of 26 Marriage to Alexandra Belief in his divine right to rule Council members chosen by the Tsar Used repression to try to control opposition Pogroms

against Jews commence Political Issues 1895 Lenin led a league aimed at the emancipation of the working class; leading to a rapid growth in strikes Major political parties were dominated by the intelligentsia and not the peasants

Aim of all revolutionary parties was to end the autocracy although each wanted a different outcome Minister for Education assassinated 1901 Minister for the Interior assassinated 1902 Economic Issues Program of economic modernisation

needed to raise money to pay for the Trans-Siberian railway Grain continued to be exported even in the face of famines in 1897, 1898, 1901 Taxes were collected when grain prices were at their lowest increasing the economic demands on the peasants Peasants had to seek work in urban centres Some peasants wanted an end to the redemption payments Some peasants wanted more land 1903 wave of strikes oil, rail, engineering industries Social Issues

Industrial workers now formed a new class Conditions for these workers were appalling Overcrowding, Long dirty, unhygienic, dangerous hours Communes were disrupted when peasants had to seek work in towns Families became resentful and demanded reforms

Economic Reforms Sergii Witte wanted an equalizing of class status between peasants and other classes Wanted to create a market class farmers who had the means to purchase manufactured goods Supported autocracy as the means of ruling such a diverse country Supported the modernisation of Russia

Better education, civil liberties, better working conditions, efficient administration, rapid industrial growth Russo-Japanese War 1904 - 5 War over the control of Manchuria and Korea Russia defeated Belief in supremacy of Russia shaken Autocracy undermined Strikes and demonstrations in St Petersburg 1905 Revolution Bloody Sunday 8 January 1905 Putilov iron factory strike

Led by Father Gregory Gapon 111, 000 workers involved 99, 000 women and children also marched Marched on Winter Palace Demands included reforms to working conditions Demonstrators were fired on and ridden down by mounted Cossacks with sabres About 130 people were killed and hundreds injured

This destroyed the image of the Peoples Saviour Results of Bloody Sunday Spread of disturbances and revolts in Kursk & the Volga About 50% of peasants in 16 provinces revolted Union of Unions formed alliance of professionals leader

Milyukov 1st socialist Soviet (workers council) formed June Potemkin mutiny 10 other mutinies followed August an offer of an elected consultative council failed to stop the revolution 7 October first general strike 14 October - St Petersburg Soviet Leon Trotsky (Menshevik) 17 October October Manifesto framed by Witte, Prime Minister End of Presentation

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