The Critical Lens - GST BOCES

The Critical Lens - GST BOCES

THE CRITICAL LENS You will be reciting this format in your sleep 4 PARAGRAPHS 1 Introduction 2 Literature example 1 Use 1 text and 2 lit elements 3 Literature example 2 Use 1 text and 2 lit elements

4 - Conclusion PARAGRAPH 1 Restate the quote and identify the author Interpret the quote Agree or disagree Introduce 2 works of literature you will use to support your interpretation

PARAGRAPH 2 Introduce 1st piece of literature Use Title, Author, and Genre Use 2 literature elements to explain and support your interpretation of the quote PARAGRAPH 3 Introduce second piece of literature Use Title, Author, and Genre

Use 2 literature elements to explain and support your interpretation PARAGRAPH 4 1. Restate your opinion about the quote using different words from the intro paragraph. 2. Comparison of both literary works show similarities in how they support the quote use different language from the intro

3. Final thought this can be an interesting, unique opinion or summary of ideas presented in the essay BREAKING IT DOWN PA R A G R A P H 1 Example quote Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good Author Unknown

So you will write: An unknown author once wrote, Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good. That will be your opening sentence in paragraph 1 BREAKING IT DOWN PA R A G R A P H 1 C O N T I N U E D

Reminder this is the quote: Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good. Interpret the quote like this: This statement suggests that literature shows more about the bad aspects of people than the good. That will be sentence number 2 in 1st paragraph

B R E A K I N G I T D O W N PA R A G R A P H 1 CONTINUED Next you need to decide if you agree or disagree For example using the quote from this presentation you would write: This critical lens is invalid because literature shows good and bad sides of human nature equally, both in terms of peoples personal

qualities and in terms of their actions. B R E A K I N G I T D O W N PA R A G R A P H 1 CONTINUED Next you introduce both works of literature you plan to use to support your position Make sure you introduce the texts using the full title, author, and genre (i.e. play, short story, poem,

novel.) B R E A K I N G I T D O W N PA R A G R A P H 1 CONTINUED Introduce the literature like this: To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, and Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, are two novels that illustrate this balance of good and bad.

T O S U M I T U P PA R A G R A P H 1 G O E S LIKE THIS Restate the quote make sure you name the author, if known. Interpret the quote Agree or disagree Introduce 2 works of literature be sure to include

title, author, and genre T H I S I S W H AT I T S H O U L D L O O K L I K E An unknown author once wrote, Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good. This statement suggests that literature shows more about the bad aspects of people than the good. This critical

lens is invalid because literature shows good and bad sides of human nature equally, both in terms of peoples personal qualities and in terms of their actions. To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, and Of Mice and Men, by John Steinbeck, are two novels that illustrate this balance of good and bad. YOUR TURN All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil.

Author Unknown Literary elements plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting, theme, figurative language , tone, point of view EXAMPLE An unknown author once wrote, All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil. This is a valid statement because conflict is a struggle between opposing forces.

The two most universal opposing forces are good and evil. Since evil has so many different facets (hate, jealousy, and so on), its possible to see that all conflict in literature is the struggle between some type of good and some form of evil. Two works of literature that illustrate this fundamental conflict are William Goldings novel Lord of the Flies and William Shakespeares drama Othello. PARAGRAPH 2 The topic sentence should support the critical lens

Example: The characters in To Kill A Mockingbird , a novel by Harper Lee, represent a wide range of human nature. With the choice of the word characters we are choosing characterization as one of our literary elements. PA R A G R A P H 2 C O N T I N U E D Now you need a minimum of 2 examples using characterization that

supports your interpretation and whether you agree or disagree. Your next sentences should look like this: For example, Atticus Finch is a character with very positive qualities. He is a model of courage and integrity, someone who is willing to take a stand for what he believes in. It was an easy choice for Atticus to defend Tom Robinson because he knew it was the right thing to do. PA R A G R A P H 2 C O N T I N U E D Now you need a second example of characterization that supports

your interpretation and whether or not you agree or disagree. Your next sentence should look like this: By contrast, the character of Bob Ewell is evil and violent. He has many of the worst qualities of human nature. Ewell didnt send his children to school and was quite abusive to all of them, especially his daughter Mayella. He forced her to lie under oath when testifying against Tom Robinson. PA R A G R A P H 2 C O N T I N U E D

Now you need to introduce the 2nd literary element. Your next sentence should look like this: The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird similarly shows both good and bad through peoples actions. Notice that is similar to what we wrote in the introduction. 2 N D LIT ELEMENT CONT

Now you need to give 2 specific examples. Your 1st one should look like this: On the negative side, people cruelly and unjustly accuse Tom Robinson of rape because he is black. 2 N D LIT ELEMENT CONT Your next example of plot should look like this: On the positive side, Atticus risks his own safety to

confront a lynch mob outside the jail to ensure the safety of Tom Robinson until he can get his day in court. T O S U M U P PA R A G R A P H 2 You now need to have a clincher sentence for the first text. You might write the following: The actions of Atticus prove that in literature we see the

good side of human nature. In contrast, through the story line and the actions of Bob Ewell, we also read about the cruel nature that resides deep within the human soul. PA R A G R A P H 2 S H O U L D L O O K L I K E THIS: The characters in To Kill A Mockingbird , a novel by Harper Lee, represent a wide range of human nature. For example, Atticus Finch is a character with very positive qualities. He is a model of courage and

integrity, someone who is willing to take a stand for what he believes in. It was an easy choice for Atticus to defend Tom Robinson because he knew it was the right thing to do. By contrast, the character of Bob Ewell is evil and violent. He has many of the worst qualities of human nature. Ewell didnt send his children to school and was quite abusive to all of them. Especially his daughter, Mayella. He forced her to lie under oath when testifying against Tom Robinson. The plot of To Kill a Mockingbird similarly shows both good and bad through peoples actions. On the negative side, people cruelly and unjustly accuse Tom Robinson of rape because he is black. On the positive side, Atticus risks his own safety to confront a lynch mob outside the jail to ensure the safety of Tom Robinson until he can get his day in court. The actions of Atticus prove that in literature we see the good side of human nature. In contrast, through the story line and the actions

of Bob Ewell, we also the cruel nature that resides deep within the human soul. YOUR TURN Write paragraph 2 using this quote: All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil. Author Unknown Literary elements plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting, theme, figurative

language , tone, point of view FOR EXAMPLE In Lord of the Flies, Golding uses the theme of power to dramatize the conflict between good and evil. In this novel the main characters are adolescent boys seeking to gain the acceptance and leadership of the group. Because they are stranded on an island, without adult supervision, they are free to do as they please. As the novel progresses, the true natures of the boys are revealed. Ralph, the leader, is characterized as a thoughtful and good boy. He uses his reasoning and sense of civilized behavior to rule over the boys. Jack,

on the other hand, resents Ralphs leadership and becomes the leader of a separate group. These boys represent more savage behavior, constantly hunting to kill wild pig and chanting kill the Beast. The struggle between good and evil is symbolized in the way Jacks group become more and more savage and even tries to kill Ralph. Goldings story suggests that once allowed total freedom from rules or society, a basic savage instinct (evil) will take over these once civilized boys. PARAGRAPH 3 This is exactly like paragraph 2 but uses a 2nd piece of

literature The first sentence should look like this: Like the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird, The characters in Of Mice and Men , a novel by John Steinbeck, also show peoples good traits as well as their bad. Notice the word charactersthat suggests I will use characterization as my 1st lit element. 3 CONT

Now we need some examples of characterization In the relationship between George and Lennie, there are positive qualities of human nature, such as friendship, loyalty, and trust. Lennie trusts George to take care of him. PARAGRAPH 3 CONT A second example: On the other hand, Curley, a mean troublemaker,

shows just how unpleasant people can be. Curley is constantly picking fights with the other ranch hands and accusing them of being with his wife. 3 CONT Now we need the 2nd lit element It should begin like this: The plot Of Mice and Men shows how good or bad people can be in their actions.

3 R D CONT Next come the examples George protects Lennie and takes care of him. At the end, George has to shoot Lennie to save him from a worst fate. 3 R D CONT Another example

Meanwhile, Curley is a bully. It's he who wants to shoot Lennie down after Lennie accidentally kills Curleys wife. 3 R D CONT Finally the clincher Its interesting that George shoots Lennie out of friendship, while Curley wanted to shoot him for revenge. These two motives in themselves suggest

the range of human nature. T H I S I T W H AT I T L O O K S L I K E Like the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird, The characters in Of Mice and Men , a novel by John Steinbeck, also show peoples good traits as well as their bad. In the relationship between George and Lennie, there are positive qualities of human nature, such as friendship, loyalty, and trust. Lennie trusts George to take care of him. Curley, a mean troublemaker, shows just how unpleasant people can be. On the other hand, Curley, a mean troublemaker, shows just how unpleasant people can be. Curley is constantly picking fights with the other ranch hands and

accusing them of being with his wife. The plot Of Mice and Men shows how good or bad people can be in their actions. George protects Lennie and Takes care of him. At the end, George has to shoot Lennie to save him from a worst fate. Meanwhile, Curley is a bully. It's he who wants to shoot Lennie down after Lennie accidentally kills Curleys wife. Its interesting that George shoots Lennie out of friendship, while Curley wanted to shoot him for revenge. These two motives in themselves suggest the range of human nature. YOUR TURN Write paragraph 3 using this quote:

All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil. Author Unknown Literary elements plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting, theme, figurative language , tone, point of view EXAMPLE Shakespeare suggests a similar theme in his play Othello. Shakespeare introduces

the character of Othello as a brave, loving, and honorable man. He also introduces the complete antithesis of Othello in the character Iago. Iago is Othello's most trusted officer, yet he is not what he seems. He secretly resents a lack of promotion and becomes fundamentally driven to destroy the good Othello. It is the evil in Iago that allows him to take advantage of Othellos trusting nature and prey on his good heart. Using Othello's trust in him, Iago persuades Othello that his adored wife, Desdemona, is unfaithful to him. Provoked by Iago, Othello becomes consumed with hate and jealousy and kills his innocent wife. In the character Othello, Shakespeare shows us how a character can cross the threshold between

good and evil. Iagos evil overcomes Othellos goodness and destroys him. CONCLUSION Restate the quote like this As you can see, the quote Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good by an unknown author is not true. Literature shows both good and bad qualities that reside in humans.

CONCLUSION CONT Restate the works of literature you used Like this: Novels such as To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice and Men show the interaction between positive and negative aspects of human nature. CONCLUSION CONT

Next summarize your main points like this: Rather than emphasize the bad, these novels present a more or less balanced view of peoples good and bad qualities. IT LOOKS LIKE THIS As you can see, the quote Literature opens a dark window on the soul, revealing more about what is bad in human nature than what is good by an unknown author is not true. Literature shows both

good and bad qualities that reside in humans. Novels such as To Kill a Mockingbird and Of Mice and Men show the interaction between positive and negative aspects of human nature. Rather than emphasize the bad, these novels present a more or less balanced view of peoples good and bad qualities. YOUR TURN Write a conclusion using the following quote

All conflict in literature is, in its simplest form, a struggle between good and evil. Author Unknown Literary elements plot, conflict, irony, characterization, setting, theme, figurative language , tone, point of view

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