The Crisis of the House Divided - American Studies US ...

The Crisis of the House Divided - American Studies US ...

The Crisis of the House Divided and the failure of political leadership and the coming of the Civil War The Question Can you establish and maintain a nation based on human equality with slavery still intact?

Another Question. Was the Civil War the result of the inability of political forces to compromise? Nation of Equality?

Establishing a nation based on human equality with slavery still intact? (Barbara Fields) Our failure to compromise? (Shelby Foote) Specific Causes

State RightsAKA: Federalism Specific Causes Expansion of Slavery Related to Political Representation NOT

morality* Territorial Expansion & National Identity

Louisiana PurchaseJ Jeffersonian Democracy--? ImpressmentAlec Battle of New Orleans--? Monroe DoctrineAlex Why are the North South so different?

Francis Cabot LowellCooper The Erie CanalMichaela Jacksonian DemocracySerina Transcendental movement--? Life Styles North

Industry Small, versatile farms Produces much much more; exports Population: HUGE Immigrants Schools Labor forces: workers Better banks

YAY for Tariffs! South

Cash Crops Imports Labor force: slaves Few immigrants Not as educated Cultural ties with England Boo! No Tariffs Significance of Economics

..people vote with their pocketbooks. What will the North support? What will the South support? Group Presentation Study Questions: Manifest Destiny?

What is Manifest Destiny? Was the War with Mexico & the annexation of Texas & California justified? (text: pp. 130-138; Zinn: 121-134)

Group Presentation Study Question: Events Leading to the Civil War: Do you think there were any points at which the Civil War could have been adverted? Text: p156-165; Zinn: 135-152)

The Missouri Compromise 1820 Missouri wishes to enter as a slave state Supported by the South

Counter proposal No more slaves brought in & children of slaves freed at age 25 Missouri Compromise. Compromise is proposed by Henry Clay

(Speaker of the House) Missouri is a slave state Maine is created

formerly part of Massachusetts Remaining part of Louisiana purchase: North of 36* 30=Free South of 36* 30=Slave Missouri Compromise..

Significance: The balance is preserved! How does this compromise relate to Federalism/State Rights? PRIMARY DOCUMENT---SLAVE SOIL VS. FREE SOIL

Nat Turner Revolt 1831, South Hampton VA. (Jaron) Most violent in History Who is it blamed on?

Black Preachers N. Abolitionists Results?

The Great Reaction Closing of the South! PRIMARY DOCUMENT: THE NAT TURNER REVOLT Manifest Destiny

What is Manifest Destiny? Worster vs. Georgia--? Indian RemovalKyler

Manifest Destiny--Chance Texas RevolutionLogan War with MexicoQuintin Hellgate Treaty--Quinlin Territorial ExpansionManifest Destiny Oregon Territory1846

Columbia river and Puget Sound Spanish Territory Texas

Rebellion 1836 Annexation 1845 Mexican troops massacre 342 Texan prisoners of war at Goliad on March 27, 1836. Despite this success in putting down the Texas rebellions, Mexican general Antonio Lpez de Santa Anna was forced to surrender to the Republic of Texas in April 1836. Texas was inducted into the United

States in 1845. Open note quiz

What are the long term causes of the Civil War? About what % of Southern Society owned slaves? About what % owned 50 or more Slaves? Why did the Market Revolution transform the North and not the South? How did Manifest Destiny make compromise between slave and free states increasingly difficult? Who was the Nat Turner revolt blamed on? What did the

revolt result in? Expansion.. California June 1846

Private rebellion Bear Flag Republic Annexation July 7, 1846 Two separate nations by 1840s

In essence after the Mexican War there were FOUR political parties in the U.S., disguised as two: northern Whigs, northern Democrats, southern Whigs and southern Democrats. Thus, they nominated national candidates and legislation that appealed to no clear majority. It isnt Millard Fillmores, Franklin

Pierces, or James Buchanans collective fault that they couldnt solve an insoluble situation Millard Fillmore 1850-53 Whig Franklin Pierce 1853-1857 Democrat

James Buchanan 1857-61 Democrat Failure of Political Leadership?

Failure of the two national political parties: Whig and Democrat to produce leadership in the 1840s and especially 1850s to solve the problem. Both parties ended up splitting into sectional division. A legacy of failed compromises

First in 1787 with 3/5 clause and abolition of external slave trade during the constitutional convention debates (North thought it had it contained) Second, Missouri Compromise in 1821 (North thought it had contained again, south of 36 30 line)

The California Gold Rush--Smallz The Compromise of 1850? The Fugitive Slave LawLinnea

Third, the Compromise of 1850, as an attempt to fashion some middle ground in the wake of new boundaries drawn after the Mexican War in order somehow to keep the Mo. Compromise line in place, incorporate popular sovereignty in the newly acquired lands, and to bring about a national consensus on the expansion of slavery

And our national political conversation becomes unhinged in the 1850s But what, REALLY, is to compromise? Where is the political middle ground?

Reminds me a great deal of the nature of the debate on abortion & gay marriage. Those who favor choice have the law and the Constitution on their side; those who oppose it, believe they have morality on theirs. There will be a disconnection there, always. This drove the political discussion in the 1850s The Crisis Unfolds

The Mexican War opens the Pandoras box Wilmot Proviso, 1846 Compromise of 1850 brokered by Henry

Clay Compromise! What is it? 1. 2. 3. 4. Compromise contained four parts:

California admitted as a free state, other areas left up to popular sovereignty Texas ceded land to U.S. (to New Mexico really) to pay off debts incurred prior to statehood Slave trade (but not slavery) abolished in D.C. Fugitive Slave Law passed by Congress and signed into law

Sparked outrage in the North and led to belief that the U.S. was more and more dominated by a slaveocracy and galvanized the abolitionist movement in the North

Has Slavery perverted America? Dred Scott DecisionMinno Underground RailroadIsaac Uncle Toms Cabin--Alexis

Led to publication of Harriet Beecher Stowes, wildly popular Uncle Toms Cabin, 1852 "For many years of her life, the author avoided all reading upon or allusion to the subject of slavery, considering it as too painful to be inquired into, and one which advancing light and civilization would certainly live down. But, since the

legislative act of 1850, when she heard, with perfect surprise and consternation, Christian and humane people actually recommending the remanding escaped fugitives into slavery, as a duty binding on good citizens,--when she heard, on all hands, from kind, compassionate and estimable people, in the free states of the North, deliberations and discussions as to what Christian duty could be on this head,--she could only think, These men and Christians cannot know what slavery is; if they did, such a question could never be open for discussion. And from this arose a desire to exhibit it in a living

dramatic reality." Harriet Beecher StoweUncle Toms Cabin Overall Causes of the Civil War Overall Causes

State rightsfederalism Division of power between the National and State Governments Expansion of Slavery

Political Representation in a growing Nation. Fugitive Slave Act Also led to several notable test cases in the North, principally the Anthony Burns case in Boston, 1854. Nine sates had personal liberty laws.

Burns fled Virginia from Owner Charles Suttle. Suttle Went to Boston to claim his Property. Court case-riot-Burns was to return to Suttle in shackles And chains. A black church raised 1300 to Eventually free him!

Stephen Douglas, Senator, Illinois, Democrat The Little Giant! Great man wrong time The Kansas-Nebraska Act led to the creation of the Republican Party in 1854 and

attracted people like Abraham Lincoln Bleeding Kansas, 1855-56 Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 allowed the concept of popular sovereignty to be

applied to Kansas and presumably other western territories north of 36 30 line.

It also led to one heck of a mess! Lecompton fiasco, 1855 Kansas constitutionChoose slavery or notViolation of Missouri

Compromise? People could vote-Missouri Flooded polls. Border Warfare, 1856 Lecompton Constitution 1857 In Kansas pro-slavery forces held a constitutional convention and drew up the Lecompton Constitution in 1857. The constitution allowed Kansas to be admitted into the union as a slave state. The legislators held a citizens vote in December and anti-slavery forces,

believing that the voting was rigged, refused to participate. The voting resulted in: 6,226 for slavery and the Lecompton Constitution 569 against slavery and the Lecompton Constitution Did you know... The fiasco in Kansas over the Lecompton Constitution revealed the inherent weakness of the idea of Popular Sovereignty and spelled it death as a potential method for deciding the slavery issue. The Crime Against Kansas

Charles Sumner, Republican Senator from Massachusetts, May 1856; Directed primarily at a colleague, Senator David

Butler, South Carolina in which he accused him, of choosing the harlot of slavery Dred Scott vs. Sanford, 1857 Negroes have no

rights which a white man is bound to respect The End of the Line: John Browns Raid, October, 1859 This court acknowledges, as I suppose, the validity of the law of God. I see a book kissed here which I suppose to be the Bible, or at least the New Testament. That teaches me that all things whatsoever I would

that men should do to me, I should do even so to them. It teaches me, further, to "remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them." I endeavored to act up to that instruction. I say, I am yet too young to understand that God is any respecter of persons. I believe that to have interfered as I have done as I have always freely admitted I have done in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit; so

let it be done! John Brown, 1859 The Spark: The Election of 1860 Lincoln and the crisis of secession March 4, 1861

Crisis at Fort Sumter Lincolns options at Ft. Sumter What would you do if you were President of the United States at this point? Because of his election in November, seven

states seceded, others are threatening to, federal property has been seized, and a federal fort is besieged with violence threatened. What do you do? To Secede!

Seven states secede between December 1860 and March, 1861 Border states dilemma for Lincoln Inauguration, March 4, 1861 The growing crisis caused by Ft. Sumter Specific Economic reasons

The South Cotton is King Plantation economic system Slavery Cash Crops Not much industry. Low value on Public Education Few Rails and Canals

The North Diversity is King Agricultural diversity. Industry-manufacturing Roads, Rails, Canals Banks Large Cities Immigrant labor Education

Test Review: Pre-Civil War test review: Identify the Significance: Identify Who, what, when, where and why significant. Provide one great paragraph per item. 1. Cotton is King see slide 14 Lifestyles North and South & 68. 2. Manifest Destiny 3. Federalism 4. Fugitive Slave Law

5. Uncle Toms Cabin 6. Dred Scott Decision 7. Election of 1860 8. Primary Documents/Images: slide 11, 24, 46, 59, 65

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