The Cognitive Approach

The Cognitive Approach

The Cognitive Level of Analysis IB Psychology The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now: What are the main three main assumptions of the cognitive level of

analysis? Homework: See Agenda The Cognitive Revolution 1. Around the 1950s psychologists began to explore cognition to further understand behavior. 2. Prior to this, observable behavior was studied and this shift was called the Cognitive Revolution. 3. Cognitive Psychologists suggested that humans form internal mental representations to guide behavior.

4. Topics such as memory, perception, artificial intelligence, amnesia and social cognition are studied. Basic Information Cognitive psychology is concerned with how people acquire, store, transform, use and communicate information. Cognitive psychologists rejected the behaviorist assumption which stated that mental events or states were unsuitable for scientific research. Believe that one cannot fully explain behavior in terms of stimulus-response connections

(behaviorism) This approach deems the person as important as environmental or biological stimuli alone. Key Concepts of Cognitive Psych Schema Theory Information Processing Memory Heuristics and Problem Solving Cognitive Dissonance Perception, attention, memory, language

Basic Assumptions 1. Mental processes guide behavior! - Psychologists see the mind as a complex machinerather like an intelligent, information processing machine using hardware (brain) and software (mental images or representations). - Cognitive processes actively organize and manipulate information that we receive humans are NOT passive responders to their environment. - Reconstructive memories, perception and infoprocessing arise out of this idea.

The Necker Cube: A visual test of perception. Look at the object for a few seconds: Is the red dot on the near or far corner? What happens if you stare at the red dot for a few seconds? - The images has two meaningful representations and the brain switches back and forth between them, because the brain does not know which way to interpret it. 2. Mental processes can and should be investigated scientifically. - Cognitive Psychologists believe that you cannot

simply learn about behavior through stimulusresponse interactions. - therefore cognitive psychologists develop theories and use a number of scientific research methods to learn about human cognition 3. Cognitive Processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. - Ex. Frederic Bartlett, who coined the term schema, states that cultural schemas influence remembering. Schema: A mental representation of knowledge. Cognitive Processes

The human mind is sophisticated and has the ability to manipulate abstract symbols, words and images These mental representations are organized into categories, and allow us to think about situations and imagine what may happen. Mental Representations are how we store images and ideas in memory. I. A Theory of Cognitive Process: Schema Theory Created by Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969), he carried out studies on reconstructive memory to show how

humans process information using pre-existing schemas. Read a Native American story The War of the Ghosts to 20 English participants and found that as the story was read more to them their recall of the story dropped from 330 words to about 180 and often substituted bits of the story to match previous experiences. The recalled story gradually became more Western as items such as the canoe was changed to a boat. The ghosts were often forgotten because they are not an important feature of Western culture. This indicates that memory is influenced by our existing

knowledge, which in turn is created by the culture in which we live Schema Theory is a cognitive process about information processing. They are organizational frameworks of the mind. It can describe how specific knowledge is organized and stored in memory so that it can be accessed and used when it is needed. One cannot see a schema inside someone elses head, but psychologists believe it gives us insight into the mind nonetheless.

Schema theory suggests that humans are active processors of information and so when it a certain situations we use our schemas as templates dictating how to react or behave. Cognitive Schema: can be defined as networks of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about particular aspects of the world. Evaluation of Schema theory Strengths: It is clear that schema theory pertains to how we categorize information and interpret stories and make inferences.

It has contributed to our understanding of memory distortions (Bartlett) Social psychologists often refer to social schemas in explaining the origins of prejudice and stereotyping. It supports the idea that culture can effect our way of thinking (memory). Limitations: It is not clear how schemas are acquired in the first place and how they actually influence our cognitive processes.

Furthermore, some say that the concept of schemas are too vague (Cohen, 1993) and thus are not useful. The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim(s): Do Now: Discuss how social or cultural factors affect one cognitive process.

Identify and evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies. What short stories do you remember from your childhood? Homework: See Agenda

REVIEW SLIDE: Schema theory Mental frameworks used to organize information. Frederic Bartlett coined the term schema and stated that cultural schemas influence remembering. REVIEW SLIDE: Schema Theory One cannot see a schema, but psychologists believe it gives us insight into the mind. Schema theory suggests that humans are active processors of information. Bartletts Study of

Reconstructive Memory See the handout and read through Bartletts Study on Reconstructive Memory. Summarize Bartletts contribution to Cognitive Psychology Identify and evaluate schema theory with reference to research studies. Try to remember what is happening in the image that will flash on the screen.

(Allport & Postman, 1947) Many recalled that a white man had been threatened with a razor by a black man. SCHEMA THEORY Schema theory indicates that prior expectations will influence our perceptions. Stereotypes will lead to changes in how we subsequently remember information. REVIEW SLIDE:

Evaluation of Schema theory Strengths: Contributed to our understanding of memory distortions (Bartlett) Social schemas can explain the origins of prejudice and stereotyping. (Cultural Impact) REVIEW SLIDE: Evaluation of Schema theory Limitations:

It is not clear how schemas are acquired in the first place and how they actually influence cognitive processes. Big Idea Explain how memory is shaped by cultural factors. The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now:

Outline Principles that define the Cognitive L.O.A and explain how these principles may be demonstrated in research. (Principle/Assumption #2: What is eyewitness testimony? Do you believe it is reliable? Explain.

The mind can be studied scientifically Using the case of Loftus and Palmer, 1974) Homework: See Agenda Loftus and Palmer, 1974 (The reliability of eye-witness testimony?) The Study Overview (with video): http://www.simplypsychology.org/loftus-palmer.html Elizabeth Loftus Psychology professor and expert researcher on the

malleability and reliability of memory, an instrumental figure in cognitive psychology. Loftus and Palmer Smashed: 41 Collided: 39 Bumped: 38 Hit: 34 Contacted: 32 Follow up One hundred and fifty participants

Smashed: Hit: Not asked: 1 week later: Did you see broken glass? Follow up 1 week later: Did you see broken glass? Smashed: 32% Hit: 14% Not asked: 12%

Criticisms - Method LOW Ecological Validity Why? The experiment was not typical of real life situations. Two kinds of information go into a person's memory of an event: 1st: the information obtained from an event 2nd: the information supplied after the event

Over time, the information from the two sources may be integrated that we are unable to tell from which source some specific detail is recalled. All we have is one 'memory'. (Reconstructive hypothesis) ABC NEWS LIVE EXPERIMENT Aired 11/10/17 The reliability of eye-witness testimony? http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/expert-explains-eyewitness-testimonies-unrelia

ble-solving-crimes-51054920 Close How does Bartletts work relate to the work of Elizabeth Loftus? The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now: Evaluate two models or

theories of one cognitive process: Memory. What lesson do you remember most from this class, this year? Why do you think that is the case? Homework: See Agenda

II. Evaluate two models or theories of one cognitive process: Memory Most people take memory for granted--until they forget something. Yet the fact that we remember more often than we forget tends to lead us to overlook the underlying complexity of memory as a cognitive process. Many important researchers contributed to what we understand about memory and how our brains store, acquire and process memories. Memory Games ( http://www.exploratorium.edu/memory/dont_forget/index.html)

Short Term Memory Information is selected by attention from sensory memory into STM. This allows us to retain information long enough to use it. Peterson and Peterson (1959) have demonstrated that STM lasts approximately between 15 and 30 seconds, unless people rehearse the material, while Miller (1956) has found that STM has a limited capacity of around 7+/-2 chunks of information. Long Term Memory

LTM provides the lasting retention of information, from minutes to a lifetime. Long term memory appears to have an almost limitless capacity. LT information seems to be encoded mainly in terms of meaning. A. The Multi-Store Model - Similarly to the analogy that our brain processes information similar to a computer, Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed a three-stage processing model of memory. Sensory memory short term memory long term memory Models are based on two assumptions:

1. Memory consists of a # of separate stores 2. Memory processes are sequential : attention coding rehearsal http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egzvLaP3498 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vW5zAY4RhOs The Atkinson-Shiffrin Model 1968 (Multiple-Store Model of Memory) Multi-Store Model Song: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vmpRKsk_nk

1. Only a small amount of information makes past the sensory memory to Short Term Memory (STM). The capacity of STM is limited to around 7 items for 6-12 seconds. 2. Rehearsal is an important factor if info is to get to Long Term Memory (LTM). 3. LTM is described as a vast storehouse of information. Memories may often be distorted when they are retrieved but we fill in the gaps as predicted by schema theory. Criticism to Atkinson-Shiffrin The model is too simplistic. Does not accommodate for the subdivisions of STM and

LTM memory stores. Evidence of the Multi-Store Model of Memory Serial Position Effect refers to the finding that recall accuracy varies as a function of an item's position within a list. When asked to recall a list of items in any order (free recall), people tend to begin recall with the end of the list, recalling those items best (the recency effect). Among earlier list items, the first few items are recalled more frequently than the middle items (the primacy

effect). Graph showing the serial position effect, the vertical axis shows the percentage of words recalled, the horizontal axis shows their position in the sequence One suggested reason for the primacy effect is that the initial

items presented are most effectively stored in long-term memory because of the greater amount of processing devoted to them. One suggested reason for the recency effect is that these items are still present in working memory when recall is solicited. Items that benefit from neither (the middle items) are recalled most poorly. B. The Working Memory Model Created by Baddeley and Hitch (1974) in which they proposed their working memory model as an alternative to the short-term store in Atkinson & Shiffrin's 'multi-store' memory model (1968). This model builds off of the multi-store model. However, they believe that STM is a

single store and is broken down into many components. Attempts to describe a more accurate model of Short Term Memory (STM). 1. The Central Executive: controlling system that monitors and coordinates the operations of other components, which are called slave systems - most important job is attentional control which is accomplished in two ways: a. Automatic level is based on habit and controlled more or less automatically by stimuli from the envt. b. Supervisory Attentional Level: deals w/ emergencies or creates new strategies when the old ones are no

longer sufficient. 2. The Episodic Buffer: the role of the buffer is to act as temporary and passive display store until the information needed much like a television screen. a is 3. The Phonological Loop: divided into two components a. Articulatory control system, or inner voice, which can hold information in a verbal form. (ex. When you try to

remember a telephone # and repeat it to yourself.) Phonological Store, or inner ear. It holds speechbased material in a phonological form. b. 4. The Visuospatial Sketchpad: also called the inner eye; and deals w/ visual and spatial info from either sensory memory or LTM. The Working Memory Model (Baddeley and Hitch, 1974)

SONG: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4gg6Xd1teZ0 Evidence of Working Memory Today we use dual-task techniques to illustrate the presence of working memory. This is when you ask the participant to carry out a cognitive task while carrying out another and hope that the 1st task is interfering the 2nd. If the two tasks interfere with each other so that one or both are impaired, it is believed that both tasks use the same component of STM.

Evaluation of the Model It includes active storage and processing, which makes it useful for explaining a variety of cognitive tasks, more so than the multi-store model. This model is able to explain why people are able to perform different cognitive tasks simultaneously without disruption - multi-tasking Work done by Gathercole (2001) has given us insight of how disruption of working memory is associated with deficits in academic performance. Ex. He says that deficits in the phonological loop lead to deficits

in mathematics and reading. Eysenck (1988) found that indv diff. in intelligences may depend on diff in working memory. Application & Criticism The working memory model explains many practical observations, such as why it is easier to do two different tasks (one verbal and one visual) than two similar tasks (e.g., two visual.) However, the concept of a central executive has been criticized as

inadequate and vague Further research is being conducted. The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now: Explain how biological factors affect one cognitive process: brain

damage memory In what ways do you think your brain impacts your memory? Homework: See Agenda III. Explain how biological factors affect one cognitive process: brain damage memory A. Hippocampus:

Research by Kandel found that the hippocampus is important in the formation of explicit memories (fact based info) Case studies have shown that damage here results in the inability to form new explicit memories but still can form new implicit memories (procedural and/or emotional memories) B. Amygdala

Found to play a role in the storage of emotional memories According to LeDoux, certain memories have emotional significance and this might explain why memories based on emotional events are remembered better. Could give us insight into PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and why some have problems forgetting, because emotional memories are difficult to get rid of.

Biological Connection to Memory The Amygdala emotional memory The Hippocampus explicit memory C. Brain Damage and Memory

1. Clive Wearing: he suffers from both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. - Anterograde amnesia: the inability to make new memories - Retrograde amnesia: the inability to remember old memories - MRI scans show damage to Clives hippocampus and some frontal regions. Clive Wearing The Man with no Long Term

Memory http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vwigmktix2Y (General - 3 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c62C_yTUyVg (Overview of Case - 13 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9BrCBq2FY_U (Overview of Brian - 9 minutes) 2. H.M. (1926-2008) was one of the most famous and important case studies to modern cognitive neuroscience and

our understandings of memory. Described by Brenda Milner and William Scoville (1957) (1953) HM had a partial resection of his medial temporal lobe (MTL) as an attempt to stop his epileptic seizures. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKP6tBhM2T4 Medial Temporal Lobe (2 minutes) After the surgery he suffered from severe anterograde amnesia (inability to make new

memories after the trauma): although his working memory and procedural memory were intact, he could not commit new events to long-term memory. He also suffered moderate retrograde amnesia, and could not remember most events in the 34 -day period before surgery, and some events up to 11 years before, meaning that his amnesia was temporally graded. However, his ability to form long-term procedural memories was still intact; thus he could, as an example, learn new motor skills, despite not being

able to remember learning them. Other Theories of Memory.. 1. Craik and Lockhart (1972) The levels of processing framework was presented as an alternative to theories of memory. States that stimulus information is processed at multiple levels simultaneously depending upon its characteristics. Furthermore, the "deeper" the processing, the more that will be remembered. Ex: information that involves strong visual images or many associations with existing knowledge will be processed at a deeper level. - Similarly, information that is being attended to receives more processing

than other stimuli/events. The theory also supports the finding that we remember things that are meaningful to us because this requires more processing than meaningless stimuli. The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now: Discuss how Social and

Cultural Influence affect one Cognitive Process. Evaluate the extent to which the cognitive process is reliable. Do you believe eyewitness testimony is reliable? Explain cohnitive process Homework: See Agenda

V. Discuss how Social and Cultural Influence effect one Cognitive Process: It should be of no surprise that cognition is influenced by the environment around you. With globalization and modern technology it requires all of us to have specialized education - think about how much we have to learn and need to memorize from school (math, psychology, language etc.) According to Jerome Bruner, children of any culture learn the basics of culture through schooling and

daily interaction with members of the culture in which they live. A. The role of schooling on remembering Research has shown that memory tests done on Western cultures do not always give the same data in other regions of the world. 1. Cole & Scribner (1974): Memory strategies in different cultures: - Compared word recall between US and Kpelle people of rural Liberia. - Realized that they could not use the same words for

both cultures so they started to observe daily activities of Kpelle people, so words were more relevant. - compared data from school vs. non-school children in Liberia. - Asked children to recall as many items as possible from 4 categories: utensils, clothes, tools, and vegetables. Results: a. Children without schooling could not increase recall even after practicing. Remembered 10 items the first time and

only 2 more after 15 practice trials b. Children with schooling learned list just as quickly as US children and used similar techniques such as chunking c. In a later trial, the researchers presented the objects in a story (narrative). The illiterate children recalled the objects more so. d. Other studies confirm these results (Rogoff & Wadell, 1982) found that Mayan children could easily recall objects if put into a meaningful story format. REVIEW SLIDE: A Theory of Cognitive Process: Schema Theory

Created by Frederic Bartlett (1886-1969), he carried out studies on reconstructive memory to show how humans process information using pre-existing schemas. Read a Native American story The War of the Ghosts to 20 English participants and found that as the story was read more to them their recall of the story dropped from 330 words to about 180 and often substituted bits of the story to match previous experiences. The recalled story gradually became more Western as items such as the canoe was changed to a boat. The ghosts

were often forgotten because they are not an important feature of Western culture. This indicates that memory is influenced by our existing knowledge, which in turn is created by the culture in which we live REVIEW SLIDE: Schema Theory is a cognitive process about information processing. They are organizational frameworks of the mind. It can describe how specific knowledge is organized and stored in memory so that it can be accessed and used when it

is needed. One cannot see a schema inside someone elses head, but psychologists believe it gives us insight into the mind nonetheless. Schema theory suggests that humans are active processors of information and so when it a certain situations we use our schemas as templates dictating how to react or behave. Cognitive Schema: can be defined as networks of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations about particular aspects of the world. REVIEW SLIDE: Evaluation

of Schema theory Strengths: It is clear that schema theory pertains to how we categorize information and interpret stories and make inferences. It has contributed to our understanding of memory distortions (Bartlett) Social psychologists often refer to social schemas in explaining the origins of prejudice and stereotyping. It supports the idea that culture can effect our way of

thinking (memory). REVIEW SLIDE: Limitations: It is not clear how schemas are acquired in the first place and how they actually influence our cognitive processes. Furthermore, some say that the concept of schemas are too vague (Cohen, 1993) and thus are not useful. VI. Reliability of one cognitive process: Memory

How reliable is memory? Recently legal systems have learned more towards DNA evidence because of the inconsistencies of memory. Reconstructive memory allows one to explain how memory may be influenced by other factors 1. Frederic Bartlett: - his War of the Ghost experiment showed how culture effects the reconstructive process of memory and how schemas influence memory recall. - Stated the more complicated the story, the more elements will be forgotten or distorted.

2. Elizabeth Loftus The most horrifying idea is that what we believe with all our hearts is not necessarily the truth. (Loftus, 1996) Dr. Elizabeth F. Loftus, a professor of psychology and expert researcher on the malleability and reliability of repressed memories, is an instrumental figure in cognitive psychology. She has done innumerable studies of over 20,000 subjects showing that eyewitness testimonies are

often unreliable and that false memories can be triggered in up to 25 percent of people merely by suggestion or giving of incorrect post event information (Niemark,1996). The aim of this study was to investigate later information, particularly famed questions, influences a witness's memory for that event. In asking her subjects to recall an event, she attempts to replicate how eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories She showed people film of traffic accident and

quizzed them about that they saw. First, she showed her subjects a video of a car accident. Then, in her experimental groups she would either ask the participants to estimate how fast the car was going when it smashed or hit. the car. Depending on how the question was posed, they answered differently whether they had seen glass or not. Misinformation effect: incorporating misinformation into ones memory of the event. Her research demonstrates a flaw in the validity of eyewitness testimony

http://www.holah.karoo.net/loftusstudy.htm They argue that two kinds of information go into a person's memory of an event (Loftus & Palmer, 1974) 1st: is the information obtained from perceiving an event (e.g. witnessing a video of a car accident), 2nd: is the other information supplied to us after the event (e.g. the question containing hit or smashed). Over time, the information from these two sources may be integrated in such a way that we are unable

to tell from which source some specific detail is recalled. All we have is one 'memory'. This explanation is often referred to as the reconstructive hypothesis The Cognitive Level of Analysis Aim: Do Now: Discuss the use of technology in

instigating cognitive processes. Take out your cognitive review packet and turn to question 3.7 addresses the aim questions. Homework: See Agenda VII. Technology & Cognitive Processes

PET scan: has allowed neuroscientists to develop methods to detect the signs of Alzheimers earlier than ever before. - research as NYU has developed a brain-scan-based computer program that illustrates early warning signs of memory degradation in Alzheimers by showing diminishing metabolic activity in the hippocampus. MRI and fMRI: both provide 3-D pictures of brain structures. Based on oxygen consumption, the more an area

uses oxygen the more active it is. Used to see what areas are active when cognitive processes such as reading, problem solving and memory are happening. Even used in marketing popular products neuromarketing (ex. Clinton Kilts, Pepsi/Coke taste test @ Emory: showed that the ventral putamen was involved in selecting sodas) See 3.7 in Cognitive Review Packet The Cognitive Level of Analysis

Aim: Do Now: Evaluate one theory of how emotion may affect one cognitive process. To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion?

Take out your cognitive review packet and turn to questions 3.8 & 3.9 which address the two aim questions. Homework: See Agenda Cognition and Emotion: Tries to answer the questions about why we easily

remember some things but not others: Famous brain researcher, Antonio Damasio, explains that emotions are purely physical signals of the body which react to external stimuli. Feelings arise when the brain interprets these emotions. Emotions consist of three components: 1. Physiological changes 2. The persons own subjective feelings 3. Associated behavior VIII. To what extent do cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion

The amygdala appears to be critical in emotional perception and memory. Studies of animals and humans indicate that stress hormones such as adrenaline are released when strong emotions are evoked. A. In the Emotional Brain (1999) Joseph LeDoux described two biological pathways of emotions in the brain. 1. Short route: from thalamus to amygdala 2. Long route: passes via the neocortex/amygdala and hippocampus

- the amygdala receives input and projects them to areas of the brain stem that help control emotional responses such as the fight or flight response. - According to LeDoux, it is advantageous that the amygdala is flexible in where it receives and transmit emotional information. Allows us to perceive danger quickly and further evaluate stimuli which are not threatening (think before you act) B. Lazaruss Theory of Appraisal (Complete the reading/handout(s) provided)

C. Brown & Kulik (1977): Flashbulb theory A flashbulb memory is a memory created in great detail during a personally significant event, often a shocking event of national or international importance. They found highly emotional memories (e.g. hearing bad news) were often vividly recalled, even some time after the event. Ex: a great many people can remember where they were when they heard of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001

IX: Other Cognitive Theories/Concepts: A. Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Theory = the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent Festinger & Carlsmiths famous study ( ) developed the cognitive dissonance theory to explain the results of their experiment. The Experiment:

First, they asked people perform a boring task (separating spools into groups of 12 and turning a square peg a turn). Then, in two experimental groups they gave participants either $1 or $20 to tell an evaluator that they enjoyed the experiment. They found that the subjects in the $1 were more likely to actually believe that they enjoyed the experiment. Explain - why that is? B. Free Will vs. Determinism

Cognitive Psychology developed as a reaction against behaviorism which emphasizes determinism. However, the cognitive approach states that a person actively thinks about their behavior therefore they should be able to change these cognitions on their own free will. Some refer to cognitive psychologists as soft determinists Soft determinism: Thesis of determinism is true

and is compatible with freedom, because freedom requires two elements: capability (I can) and desire (I want to). A free act is a voluntary act that nothing prevents me from performing. The CLOA does address both biological and environmental influence, yet does not say that we are simply born preprogrammed or simply passive responders to our surroundings!!! X. Cognition and Therapy 1.) Albert Ellis' Rational Emotive Therapy (1973,1993)

- is a clinical application of cognitive principles blended with behavioral principles. - This cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) rests on the idea that inappropriate and self-defeating beliefs are the root of psychological disorders. 2.) Aaron Beck, another cognitive psychotherapist, has a similar view on therapy based on the belief that anxiety promoting patterns of thinking are what cause anxiety and depressive disorders (Beck, 1976; 1993). XII. Controversies and Criticisms

The largest controversy within the perspective is in assessing the validity of the approach. Some say that lack of experimental evidence for the approach make the perspective overly simplified and theoretical. Ecological validity the validity that a principle observed in a laboratory setting has outside of that setting, in the field, in the real world. OR a studies ability to be generalized to the masses. Since there is difficulty in saying what conditions are natural or normal (some field experiments may be conducted under very unusual circumstances, while laboratories are human

social situations too), Others praise the perspectives ability to explain behaviors that the learning perspective cannot and for its functional explanation of psychology. Furthermore the cognitive approach is particularly strong when it is combined with ideas from other approaches. http://cranepsych.com/Psych/Cognitive_pers_validity.pdf XIII. Methods Used Laboratory experimentation -Clinical interviews

-Verbal protocols -Ethical considerations Easiest Method to write about:Lab experimentation Laboratory Experiments - used as the primary method of research for cognitive psychologists - Strength: is that all variables can be controlled - Limitation: suffers from ecological validity and artificiality

Brain Technology: - today, fMRI and CT scans offer the possibilities to look into brain processes within the active brain, giving us insight into the workings of the mind. XIV. Evaluation/Analysis of this Approach Strengths: - It investigates many areas of behavior ignored by the learning perspective, using rigorous scientific methods.

-Explanations at a functional, psychological level rather than a reductionist approach. -It has combined with other perspectives to strengthen its explanations - e.g. neuropsychology. Weaknesses: - Overly simplistic - computer model disregards the complexity of human behavior. -Overly hypothetical -Objectification of its participants -Question of mundane vs. psychological reality

-Sampling is YAVIS (Eyseneck) Young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, successful, the syndrome of personal qualities that counselors, therapists, and people in general supposedly find most appealing in their clients or associates

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