The Cell - Ms. Trimble's Website

The Cell - Ms. Trimble's Website

The Cell Learning Outcome B1 Learning Outcome B1 Analyze the functional inter-relationship of cell

structures Student Achievement Indicators Describe the following cell structures and their functions:

Cell membrane Cell wall Chloroplast Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm

Golgi bodies Lysosomes Mitochondria including cristae and matrix Nucleus including nuclear pore, nucleolus, chromatin, nuclear envelope and chromosomes

Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Vacuoles Vesicles

Student Achievement Indicators State a balanced chemical equation for cellular respiration Describe how the following organelles function to

compartmentalize the cell and move material through it: Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum Vesicles Golgi bodies

Cell membrane Identify cell structures depicted in diagrams and electron micrographs

How do we define Living? The following characteristics are used to define living things: 1. Living things are organized

Specialized for specific functions Have various levels organs/tissues/cells Cells are the smallest structural unit of life Cells are made up of molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates and fats

How do we define Living? 2. Living things need food or energy from the environment Animals obtains materials and energy when

they eat food Plants use CO2, water and solar energy to make their food, through the process of photosynthesis Nutrient molecules can be broken down into

parts and products through a series of chemical reactions. Some of these molecules will be broken down completely to provide energy for these chemical reactions. Metabolism is all the chemical reaction that

How do we define Living? 3. Living things keep a steady internal environment despite changes in the external environment. Example blood pressure, body temperature

Homeostasis helps maintain a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment How do we define Living?

4. Living things respond to stimuli, both internal and external. An organisms behavior may be dictated by how it responds to its external environment Example movement towards light

How do we define Living? 5. Living things reproduce offspring, and offspring generally resemble parents. Asexual organisms divides, so offspring have

the same genes as parents (identical) Sexual each parent contributes half of the genes (variation) How do we define Living?

6. Living things grow and develop Changes occur during the lifecycle Different stages from fertilization to death Growth increase in size and number of cells Development stages that occur between

fertilization and death. How do we define Living? 7. Living things adapt to different environments and conditions.

May adapt to become suited to a particular way of life The Cell There are two types of cells:

1. Prokaryotic no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Example bacteria 2. Eukaryotic has a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

Example mammals Chromosomes Location in Cell Nucleus

Function Contains genetic information that regulates cell function Contains DNA and protein

Nucleolus Location in Cell Nucleus

Function Makes a chemical messenger, called mRNA. Carries the genetic information from the nucleus to ribosomes

Nuclear Membrane (Envelope) Location in Cell Nucleus Function

Separates the genetic information from the cytoplasm. Functions as a barrier Ribosomes

Location in Cell Cytoplasm Function Site of protein synthesis

Receives information from the nucleus to order the joining of amino acids into proteins. Endoplasmic Reticulum Location in Cell

Cytoplasm Function Transports various large molecules that are synthesized within the cytoplasm

Rough endoplasmic reticulum contains ribosomes that synthesize proteins. While the smooth endoplasmic reticulum does not contain ribosomes.

Mitochondria Location in Cell Cytoplasm Function

Converts energy Is involved in aerobic cellular respiration Formula for cellular respiration Golgi Body (Apparatus)

Location in Cell Cytoplasm Function Processes, packages and secretes various

proteins. Releases fluids through cell membrane by exocytosis. Lysosome

Location in Cell Cytoplasm Function Contains enzymes that digest things taken into

the cell. Is capable of destroying the cell Chloroplasts Location in cell

Cytoplasm Function Specializes in photosynthesis in plant cells

Microfilaments Location in cell Cytoskeleton Function

Provides shape and movement for cells. Are found in muscle cells Microtubules Location in cell

Cytoskeleton Function Are cylinders of protein found in cytoplasm, cilia and flagella

Help maintain shape and act as a track along which cell organelles can move.

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