The Body in Motion - Biology Junction

The Body in Motion - Biology Junction

Solomon Berg Martin Biology, Seventh Edition Chapter 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Organic compounds Carbon atoms covalently bonded form the backbone of the molecule Very simple carbon compounds are considered inorganic if carbon is not bonded to another carbon or hydrogen

Carbon dioxide is an example of inorganic carbon Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Carbon forms four covalent bonds, producing many shapes

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Isomers: compounds with the same molecular formulas, but different structures Structural isomers Geometric isomers Enantiomers

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Isomers Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Functional groups Groups of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations Most readily form associations with with other molecules Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Functional groups

Hydroxyl Carbonyl Carboxyl Amino Phosphate Sulfhydryl Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Polymers Most macromolecules are polymers Produced by linking monomers Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

A simple polymer Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Carbohydrates Sugars Starches

Cellulose Carbohydrate means hydrate (water of) carbon Reflects 2:1 ratio of hydrogen to oxygen Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Monosaccharides Contain three to seven carbon items Glucose most abundant monosaccharide Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Monosaccharides, 2-D structures

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Disaccharide Two sugars Two monosaccharide rings joined by a glycosidic linkage

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Derivatives of monosaccharides are important biological molecules Carbohydrates may combine with proteins to form glycoproteins

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Lipids Heterogeneous group of compounds Consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen Some are important hormones and some are used for energy storage

Soluble in nonpolar solvents, such as ether, and relatively insoluble in water Important groups include fats, phospholipids, carotenoids, etc. Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Triacylglycerols (fats)

Most abundant lipids in living organisms When metabolized, yield twice as much energy as carbohydrates Carbohydrates and proteins can be transformed by enzymes into fats Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Triacylglycerol, the main storage lipid Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Saturated fatty acids contain maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms Unsaturated fatty acids include one or

more adjacent pairs of carbon atoms joined by a double bond Monounsaturated fatty acidsone double bond Polyunsaturated fatty acidsmore than one double bond Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Phospholipids Amphipathic lipids Two ends differ physically and chemically Uniquely suited to function as fundamental components of cell membranes Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds A phospholipid and a phospholipid bilayer Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Carotenoids

Orange and yellow plant pigments Classified with lipids Play a role in photosynthesis Consist of isoprene units Animals convert to vitamin A Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Isoprenederived compounds Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Steroid Carbon atoms in four attached

rings Consist of isoprene units Cholesterol, bile salts, etc. Involved in regulating metabolism Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Proteins

Macromolecules composed of amino acids Most versatile cell components Most enzymes are proteins Proteins largely determine what a cell looks like and how it functions Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Four levels of organization Primary structure is the amino acid sequence Secondary structure results from hydrogen bonding

Tertiary structure depends on interactions among side chains Quaternary structure results from interactions among polypeptides Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Primary structure of a polypeptide

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Secondary structure of a protein Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Tertiary structure of a protein Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Quaternary structure of a protein Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Nucleic acids Transmit hereditary information Determine what proteins a cell manufactures Two classes found in cells Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Polymers of nucleotides Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Components of nucleotides Five-carbon sugar Deoxyribose (DNA) Ribose (RNA) One or more phosphate groups Nitrogenous base of either a double-ring purine or a single-ring pyrimidine

Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds Components of nucleotides Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition

CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds RNA, a nucleic acid Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning Biology, Seventh Edition CHAPTER 3 The Chemistry of Life: Organic Compounds

Classes of biologically important organic compounds Copyright 2005 Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning

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