The 4th Management Function: CONTROLLING Managing for productivity and results must operate in You as a manager a complex environment and Competitive advantage Diversity
Globalizatio n make decision about Planning Organizin g the 4 Information manage Leading technology ment
function Controllin Ethical standards s g Your happiness & goals to achieve productivit y and realize results
What is productivity? Productivity can be applied at any level, whether for you as an individual, for work unit youre managing, or for organization you work for It is defined by the formula of outputs divided by inputs for a specified period of time. Outputs are all the goods and services produced. Inputs are not only labor but also capital, materials, and energy productivity = outputs/ inputs = goods+services/ labor+capital+materials+energy Why increasing productivity is important? Productivity is important to companies
because ultimately it determines whether the organization will make profit or even survive These functions (below) affect one another and it turn Controlling: affect in Orgs productivity Organizing: monitor Planning: set goals & decide how to achieve them arrange tasks,
people, and other resources to accomplish the work Leading: motivate people to work hard to achieve Orgs goals performance , compare it with goals, and take
corrective action as needed For productivity What is Controlling? A process of monitoring performance, comparing with goals, and correcting work performance as needed to make sure performance meets objectives Why control is needed? To adapt to change & uncertainty To discover irregularities & errors To reduce costs, increase productivity, or
add value To detect opportunities To deal with complexity To decentralize decision making & facilitate teamwork Why control is needed? To adapt to change & uncertainty Consumer tastes change New competitor appear Technologies are reborn New materials are invented Government regulations are altered Why control is needed? To discover irregularities & errors Cost overruns
Manufacturing defects Employee turnover Bookkeeping errors Customer satisfaction Why control is needed? To reduce costs, increase productivity, or add value Reduce labor costs Eliminate waste Increase output Increase product delivery cycle Add value to product Why control is needed? To detect opportunities Hot-selling products
Competitive prices on materials Changing population trends New overseas market Why control is needed? To decentralize decision making & facilitate teamwork Allow top management to decentralize decision making at lower levels within the organization Encourage employees to work together in teams Why control is needed? To deal with complexity Help managers, in larger organization, coordinate well with various elements:
several product lines material-purchasing policies customer bases workers from different cultures Control Process It is a 3 steps processes of measuring actual performance, comparing actual performance against a standard, and taking managerial action to correct deviations or inadequate standards 3 main steps for controlling process:
1. Measuring 2. Comparing 3. Taking Managerial Action 1. Measuring Establish standard: What is the desired outcome we want? A control standard (or performance standard or standard) is the desired performance level for a given goal, for example, level of charitable contributions, number of students retained, number of financial performance, number of employee hiring, number of manufacturing defects, percentage increase in market share, percentage reduction in costs, number of customer complaints, and etc. Measure performance: What is the actual performance? Example: number of products sold, units produced, cost per item sold, new products create by research scientist, scholarly
writing by a college professor, or opinions expressed in peer report How we measure & report actual performance Personal Observations Statistical Reports Oral Report Written Reports Advantages (+) Get firsthand knowledge Information isnt filtered Intensive coverage of work activities
Drawbacks (-) Subject to personal biases Time-consuming Obtrusive (interfering) Easy to visualize Effective for showing relationships Fast way to get information Allow for verbal and nonverbal feedback Provide limited information Ignore subjective factors Comprehensive (detailed)
Formal Easy to file and retrieve Take more time to prepare Information is filtered Information cant be documented 2. Comparing Performance to Standard This step determines the variation between actual performance and a standard How much deviation (difference) is acceptable? It depends on the range of variation built into the standards. Managers prefer to see performance exceeds the standards.
The greater the difference between the desired and actual performance, the greater the need for action. Measurement of Performance Acceptable Range of Variation Products Sold 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2
0 t Acceptable Upper Limit Acceptable rage of variation Products Sold Acceptable Lower Limit t+1 t+2
t+3 t+4 t+5 3. Taking managerial action What changes should we make to obtain desirable outcomes? There are 3 possibilities: Make no changes Recognize and reinforce positive performance Take action to correct negative performance 3. Taking managerial action
(cont) When performance meets or exceeds the standards set, managers should give rewards, ranging from giving a verbal Job well done to more substantial payoffs such as raises, bonuses, and promotions to reinforce good behavior 3. Taking managerial action (cont) When performance falls significantly short of the standard, managers should carefully examine the reason why and take the appropriate action. They may need to revise the standards as they were unrealistic or faced changing conditions.
Or when the employees cant perform tasks to achieve the standards, manager may need to take some actions according to the specific reason of low performance. Example: When a UPS driver fails to perform according to the standard set for him/her, a supervisor rides along and give suggestions for improvement. If drivers are unable to improve, they are warned, then suspended, and then dismissed. Types of control Before the work is done: Anticipates problems While the work is going on: Corrects
problems as they occur After the work is done: Corrects problems after they occur Future-oriented Present-oriented Past-oriented Feedforwar d controls
Concurrent controls Feedback controls Feedback Types of control (cont) Feedforwardcontrol the future: before the work begins It takes place before operations begin and is intended to prevent anticipate problems The purpose is to keep problems from happening so that manager wont have to fix them afterward Concurrentcontrol for the present: while the work is in progress
It takes place while operations are going on and is intended to minimize problems as they occur The purpose is to correct problems before they become too difficult or expensive by directing, monitoring, and fine-tuning activities Feedbackcontrol for the past: after the work is done It takes place after operations are finished and is intended to correct the problems that have already occurred The drawback is the damage has already been done, however, the benefit is feedback shows how well the planning process worked and tell employees how well they performed, thereby contributing to employee motivation Levels of Control 1. Strategic control by top managers It is monitoring performance to ensure that strategic plans are being implemented and taking corrective action as needed
2. Tactical control by middle managers It is monitoring performance to ensure that tactical plans those at the divisional or departmental levelare being implemented and taking corrective action as needed 3. Operational control by first-level managers It is monitoring performance to ensure that operational plans day to day goalsare being implemented and taking corrective action as needed Areas of control Physical control: buildings, equipments, and tangible products Example: the use of computers, cars, and other machinery. There are inventory-management controls to keep track of how many products are in stock, how many will be needed, and what their delivery dates are from suppliers
There are quality controls to make sure that products are being built according to certain acceptable standards Human control Informational control Financial control Areas of control (cont) Physical control: buildings, equipments, and tangible products Human control: controls used to monitor employees Example: personality tests and drug testing for hiring, performance tests during training, performance evaluations to measure work productivity, and employee surveys to assess job satisfaction and leadership
Informational control Financial control Areas of control (cont) Physical control: buildings, equipments, and tangible products Human control: controls used to monitor employees Informational control Example: production schedules, sales forecasts, environmental impact statement, analyzes of competitions Financial control Areas of control (cont)
Physical control: buildings, equipments, and tangible products Human control: controls used to monitor employees Informational control Financial control Example: Are bills being paid on time? How much money is owed by customers? Is there enough cash on hand to meet payroll obligations? What are the debtrepayment schedules? What is the advertising budget? Financial controls are very important because they can affect the other 3 types of resources Balanced Scorecard Approach The balanced scorecard approach to evaluate organizational performance beyond just a financial perspective. Managers should develop goals in each of 4 areas and
then measure whether the goals are being met. Balanced Scorecard Perspectives The Learning & Growth Perspective: Includes employee training, learning and corporate cultural attitudes related to both individual and corporate self-improvement. The Business Process (Internal) Perspective: Includes how well their business is running, and whether its products and services conform to customer requirements (the mission). The Customer Perspective: Includes customers satisfaction, how to fulfill their needs in order to prevent future decline The Financial Perspective: Include all financial controls, timely and accurate funding data will always be a priority for organizations
Importance of Control It helps managers know whether organizational goals are being met and if theyre not being met, the reason why Maintaining productivity depends on control as control is to make something happen the way it was planned to happen
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