Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation

Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation

Technician Licensing Class Feed Me With Some Good Coax! Valid July 1, 2014 Through June 30, 2018 1 Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS (Groupings)

About Ham Radio Call Signs Control Mind the Rules Tech Frequencies Your First Radio Going On The Air! Repeaters Emergency! Weak Signal Propagation 2 Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation ELEMENT 2 SUB-ELEMENTS

(Groupings) Talk to Outer Space! Your Computer Goes Ham Digital! Multi-Mode Radio Excitement Run Some Interference Protection Electrons Go With the Flow! Its the Law, per Mr. Ohm! Go Picture These! Antennas Feed Me With Some Good Coax! Safety First! 3 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! A common use of coaxial cable is for carrying RF signals between a radio and antenna. Coaxial cable is used more often than any other feed line for amateur radio antenna systems due to the ease of use

and it requires few special installation considerations. T9B03 T7C12 4 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The most commonly used coaxial cable in typical amateur radio installations is 50 ohm impedance. T9B02 As the frequency of a signal passing through coaxial cable is increased the loss increases. T9B05 5 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! PL-259 type coax connectors are commonly used at HF frequencies. T9B07

Type N connectors are most suitable for frequencies above 400 MHz. T9B06 6 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! A disadvantage of air core coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types is that it requires special techniques to prevent water absorption. T7C11 Large coax, with hollow center conductor, low loss The most common cause for failure of coaxial cables is moisture contamination. T7C09

Coax connectors exposed to the weather should be sealed against water intrusion to prevent an increase in feed line 7 loss. T9B08 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The outer jacket of coaxial cable should be resistant to ultraviolet light which can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable. The electrical difference existing between the smaller RG-58 and larger RG-8 coaxial cables it that the RG-8 has less loss at a give frequency. T7C10 T9B10 RG-8 RG-58

8 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! Coax Cable Signal Loss (Attenuation) in dB per 100ft Loss RG174 RG-58 RG-8X RG213 RG-6 RG-11 9913

LMR-400 1MHz 1.9dB 0.4dB 0.5dB 0.2dB 0.2dB 0.2dB 0.2dB 0.3dB

10MHz 3.3dB 1.4dB 1.0dB 0.6dB 0.6dB 0.4dB 0.4dB 0.5dB 50MHz

6.6dB 3.3dB 2.5dB 1.6dB 1.4dB 1.0dB 0.9dB 0.9dB 100MHz 8.9dB

4.9dB 3.6dB 2.2dB 2.0dB 1.6dB 1.4dB 1.4dB 200MHz 11.9dB 7.3dB

5.4dB 3.3dB 2.8dB 2.3dB 1.8dB 1.8dB 400MHz 17.3dB 11.2dB 7.9dB

4.8dB 4.3dB 3.5dB 2.6dB 2.6dB 700MHz 26.0dB 16.9dB 11.0dB 6.6dB

5.6dB 4.7dB 3.6dB 3.5dB 900MHz 27.9dB 20.1dB 12.6dB 7.7dB 6.0dB

5.4dB 4.2dB 3.9dB 1GHz 32.0dB 21.5dB 13.5dB 8.3dB 6.1dB 5.6dB

4.5dB 4.1dB 9 21 Imped 50ohm 50ohm 50ohm 50ohm 75ohm 75ohm

50ohm 50ohm Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The lowest loss at VHF and UHF type of feed line is airinsulated hardline coax. The instrument to use to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired frequency is an antenna analyzer. T9B11 T7C02 Comet CAA-500 MFJ-269 SWR Analyzer 10

Feed Me With Some Good Coax! In general terms, standing wave ratio (SWR) is a measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line. T7C03 MFJ-822 Daiwa CN801H 11 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! An in-line SWR meter should be connected to monitor the standing wave ratio of the station antenna system in series with the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna. T4A05 12

Feed Me With Some Good Coax! It is important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses coaxial cable feed line to allow the efficient transfer of power and reduce losses. T9B01 13 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The reading of 1 to 1 on an SWR meter indicates a perfect impedance match between the antenna and the feed line. T7C04 SWR Reading 1:1 1.5:1 2:1 3:1

4:1 Antenna Condition Perfectly Matched Good Match Fair Match Poor Match Something definitely Wrong Comet CMX200 14 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The approximate SWR value above which the protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters begin to reduce transmitter power is 2 to 1. T7C05 Meter

indicating high SWR 15 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! With an SWR reading of 4:1, this indicates an impedance mismatch. T7C06 Some HF rigs have the SWR meter built in. This station show the rig with external SWR meter. Kenwood TS-440SAT & Bird RF Watt meter. 16

Feed Me With Some Good Coax! Erratic changes in SWR readings might be caused by a loose connection in an antenna or a feed line . T9B09 Make sure all your coaxial connections are tight to help minimize interference and erratic conditions. 17 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! A directional wattmeter is an instrument other than an SWR meter than could be used to determine if a feed

line and antenna are properly matched. T7C08 Single needle dual meter s The power lost in a feed line is converted to heat. T7C07 18 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! An antenna tuner matches the antenna system impedance to the transceivers output impedance. T9B04

Fully auto tuner Icom AH4 Manual tuner Palstar AT5K 19 Feed Me With Some Good Coax! The primary purpose of a dummy load is to prevent the radiation of signals when making tests. A dummy load consists of a non-inductive resistor and a heat sink. T7C01

T7C13 20 Element 2 Technician Class Question Pool Feed Me With Some Good Coax! Valid July 1, 2014 Through June 30, 2018 21 T7C12 Which of the following is a common use of coaxial cable? A. Carrying dc power from a vehicle battery to

a mobile radio B. Carrying RF signals between a radio and antenna C. Securing masts, tubing, and other cylindrical objects on towers D. Connecting data signals from a TNC to a computer 22 T9B03 Why is coaxial cable used more often than any other feedline for amateur radio antenna systems? A. It is easy to use and requires few special installation considerations B. It has less loss than any other type of feedline C. It can handle more power than any other type of feedline D. It is less expensive than any other types of

feedline 23 T9B02 What is the impedance of the most commonly used coaxial cable in typical amateur radio installations? A. B. C. D. 8 ohms 50 ohms 600 ohms 12 ohms 24

T9B05 What generally happens as the frequency of a signal passing through coaxial cable is increased? A. B. C. D. The apparent SWR increases The reflected power increases The characteristic impedance increases The loss increases 25 T9B07

Which of the following is true of PL-259 type coax connectors? A. B. C. D. They are preferred for microwave operation They are water tight The are commonly used at HF frequencies They are a bayonet type connector 26 T9B06 Which of the following connectors is most suitable for frequencies above 400 MHz?

A. B. C. D. A UHF (PL-259/SO-239) connector A Type N connector An RS-213 connector A DB-25 connector 27 T7C11 What is a disadvantage of air core coaxial cable when compared to foam or solid dielectric types? A. It has more loss per foot B. It cannot be used for VHF or UHF

antennas C. It requires special techniques to prevent water absorption D. It cannot be used at below freezing temperatures 28 T7C09 Which of the following is the most common cause for failure of coaxial cables? A. B. C. D. Moisture contamination Gamma rays The velocity factor exceeds 1.0

Overloading 29 T9B08 Why should coax connectors exposed to the weather be sealed against water intrusion? A. B. C. D. To prevent an increase in feedline loss To prevent interference to telephones To keep the jacket from becoming loose All of these choices are correct 30

T7C10 Why should the outer jacket of coaxial cable be resistant to ultraviolet light? A. Ultraviolet resistant jackets prevent harmonic radiation B. Ultraviolet light can increase losses in the cables jacket C. Ultraviolet and RF signals can mix together, causing interference D. Ultraviolet light can damage the jacket and allow water to enter the cable 31 T9B10 What electrical difference exists between the smaller RG-58 and larger RG-8 coaxial cables?

A. There is no significant difference between the two types B. RG-58 cable has less loss at a given frequency C. RG-8 cable has less loss at a given frequency D. RG-58 cable can handle higher power levels 32 T9B11 Which of the following types of feedline has the lowest loss at VHF and UHF? A. B. C. D.

50-ohm flexible coax Multi-conductor unbalanced cable Air-insulated hard line 75-ohm flexible coax 33 T7C02 Which of the following instruments can be used to determine if an antenna is resonant at the desired operating frequency? A. B. C. D. A VTVM

An antenna analyzer A Q meter A frequency counter 34 T7C03 What, in general terms, is standing wave ratio (SWR)? A. A measure of how well a load is matched to a transmission line B. The ratio of high to low impedance in a feedline C. The transmitter efficiency ratio D. An indication of the quality of your stations ground connection 35

T4A05 connected station Where should an in-line SWR meter be to monitor the standing wave ratio of the antenna system? A. In series with the feed line, between the transmitter and antenna B. In series with the stations ground C. In parallel with the push-to-talk line and the antenna D. In series with the power supply cable, as close as possible to the radio 36 T9B01 Why is it important to have a low SWR in an antenna system that uses coaxial cable feed line?

A. To reduce television interference B. To allow the efficient transfer of power and reduce losses C. To prolong antenna life D. All of these choices are correct 37 T7C04 What reading on an SWR meter indicates a perfect impedance match between the antenna and the feedline? A. B. C. D.

2 to 1 1 to 3 1 to 1 10 to 1 38 T7C05 What is the approximate SWR value above which the protection circuits in most solid-state transmitters begin to reduce transmitter power? A. B. C. D. 2 to 1 1 to 2

6 to 1 10 to 1 39 T7C06 What does an SWR reading of 4:1 mean? A. B. C. D. An antenna loss of 4 dB A good impedance match An antenna gain of 4 An impedance mismatch 40

T9B09 What might cause erratic changes in SWR readings? A. The transmitter is being modulated B. A loose connection in an antenna or a feedline C. The transmitter is being over-modulated D. Interference from other stations is distorting your signal 41 T7C08 What instrument other than an SWR meter could you use to determine if a feedline and antenna are properly matched?

A. B. C. D. Voltmeter Ohmmeter Iambic pentameter Directional wattmeter 42 T7C07 What happens to power lost in a feedline? A. It increases the SWR B. It comes back into your transmitter and could cause damage C. It is converted into heat

D. It can cause distortion of your signal 43 T9B04 What does an antenna tuner do? A. It matches the antenna system impedance to the transceiver's output impedance B. It helps a receiver automatically tune in weak stations C. It allows an antenna to be used on both transmit and receive D. It automatically selects the proper antenna for the frequency band being used 44 T7C01

What is the primary purpose of a dummy load? A. To prevent the radiation of signals when making tests B. To prevent over-modulation of your transmitter C. To improve the radiation from your antenna D. To improve the signal to noise ratio of your receiver 45 T7C13 What does a dummy load consist of ? A. B. C. D.

A high-gain amplifier and a TR switch A non-inductive resistor and a heat sink A low voltage power supply and a DC relay A 50 ohm reactance used to terminate a transmission line 46

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