Tar Sands Wont Fix the Problems Group: Against Topics of Interest Extracting oil tar sands in this way is not cost effective. Oil tar sands are bad for the environment and surrounding area. Extracting oil tar sands have harmful
effects on health. Using oil tar sands will not lower oil dependency in more developed countries. Environmental Factors Global Environment Local Environment Transportation effects on the environment
Global Environmental Impacts Before Emissions are much higher in the extracting and refining stages than those of conventional drilling techniques (Dembicki). Oil sand production raises global emissions. Accounting for 40 million tons of CO2
emissions per year (GreenPeace.org). The European Unions support for tar sands oil is wavering (McLennan). After Images from chasingray.com & qewnet.ning.com More Global Environment
Tailing Ponds are contaminating the environment. (H2Oil) Immense amounts of water are used for tar sands operations - currently 349 million cubic meters per year, twice the amount of water used by the city of Calgary - and 90 per cent of this cannot be returned to the river afterwards. 220 gallon of water are needed for 55 gallons of oil. Global Environmental Impacts 220 gallon of water are needed for 55 gallons of oil.
Immense amounts of water are used for tar sands operations - currently 349 million cubic meters per year, twice the amount of water used by the city of Calgary - and 90 per cent of this cannot be returned to the river afterwards. Local Environmental Factors The extraction effect in Alberta has damaged thousands of tons of forests, polluted water supplies, and has poured tens of thousands of tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Mercury, Arsenic, lead, cadmium, and nine other toxins from the tar sands operations are found in the Athabasca River, the fish in the lake, and wild game. Many fish now show deformities and blisters, and bird and caribou
migration patterns have changed in the region. Health issues in people living downstream, as well as very poor air quality for miles. There are already two toxic tailings dumps from Canadian oil sands mines can already be seen from space by the naked eye. Suspected 45,000 gallons a day of contaminated water leak into river via leaky dike. Effects U.S. environment near aquifer in the plains. Health Risks Air quality: Air monitoring near the town of Fort McMurray in Alberta has recorded excessive levels of toxic hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur oxide and particulate matter.
Tarry stench smelt from miles away (Kunzig) It stings your lungs (Kunzig) Water quality: People living downstream from the tar sands are reporting increased diseases. (Worldwatch) Fish with heavy metals (Casey) Transportation effects on environment When this mix is sent through the pipes, it is highly corrosive and more acidic than normal crude oil.
16 times more likely to have a spill than pipes that carry regular crude oil. (Frevert) One occurred in Michigan and over 800,000 gallons of oil were spilled. 2018 spills per 10,000 miles from 2002-2008
Transportation effects cont The bitumen makes it extremely hard to clean up oil spills. This is because its a lot heavier than normal crude oil and thus will become submerged underwater, which those who are cleaning up the spill have to remove as well. Oil Spills Pipes transporting dilbit are 16x more likely to
experience spills Largest spill occurred in Michigan on July 25-26, 2010 Pipe owned by Enbridge was transporting dilbit from Alberta Over 83 other spills have occurred along this aging pipeline 800,000+ gallons were spilled into Kalamazoo River Will take another year (as of April 2011) to clean up Bitumen is heavier than normal oil, thus making it harder to clean up because it sinks Cost incurred from clean up so far is over $550 million Kalamazoo River Oil Ppill." lsj. Lansing State Journal, 22/01/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011.
. Wiliams, Rebecca. Oil Lingers in Kalamazoo River Part One. Michigan Radio. Michigan Radio, 12/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . Transporting Diluted Bitumen Nikiforuk, Andrew. Alberta Fills Pipes With Corrosive Denial. The Tyee. The Tyee, 21/02/2011. http://thetyee.ca/opinion/2011/02/21/corrosivedenial/. Web. 13 Apr 2011.
Diluted bitumen is mined from tar sands containing; clay, sand, water and oil Highly corrosive and more acidic than normal crude oil Refiners have found more quartz sand the dilbit When heated up, this along with sulfur (which is 5-10x higher than what is found in crude oil) sandblast the insides of the pipes Picture of the pipeline break that occurred in the Michigan spill. Economic Factors Global influence
Benefits and Disadvantages Transportation cost Local economy and employment Keystone Pipeline The Natural Resources Defense Council has called Alberta's tar sands operations "the largest and most destructive project on Earth
(Schneider). Cost of Pipeline System "We're investing $13 billion into a pipeline system," says TransCanada's Howard of the entire Keystone network. "Why would we put a product into it that would destroy it? It doesn't make any business sense (Koch). Why would the oil destroy the pipeline? Known as DilBit, short for diluted
bitumen, it's thick as peanut butter and more acidic, highly corrosive, and abrasive (Schneider). Map of pipeline Oil Spills From 2002 to 2008, Alberta's pipeline system, which has a longer record of transporting the raw diluted bitumen, experienced 218 spills per 10,000 miles of pipeline. That was a rate of spills from corrosion approximately 16 times greater than the 13.8 corrosion-related spills during the same period along the same length of pipeline in the U.S (Schneider).
Current Pipelines (Solid Lines) and New Projected Pipeline (Dotted Line) Examples of Spills Michigan spill July 26, 2010 Now considered the worst oil spill in Midwest history and caused more than $500 million in damage (Schneider). The black goo originated some 2,000 miles away, in the tar sands fields of Alberta, Canada (Schneider).
Spill #6 in South Dakota The National Response Center took a report on January 5, 2011 that an equipment failure namely, a faulty seal along the Keystone I pipeline caused a 10 gallon spill in Andover, South Dakota (La Seur). By our count, this is spill number 6 in one state in less than a year of operation on the safest pipeline ever built, as TransCanada loves to tell us (La Seur). Predicted Pipeline Owned
by Keystone XL It will run 1700 miles from Alberta to the refinery in Texas and will open in 2013 Underground Cut through Nebraska Problems/Issue Cuts through Nebraska Sand Hills which has porous, fine sands and will cross over the Ogallala Aquifer If a spill happens over the aquifer, it will pollute water that is supplied to 2,000,000+ people Frevert, Malinda. New Tar Sands Oil Products Increase Likelihood of Spills." Bold Nebraska. Bold Nebraska, 16/02/2011. Web. 13 apr 2011. . "No to a New Tar Sands Pipeline." New York Times. New York Times, 02/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/04/03/opinion/03sun1.html.
Equipment Giant electric shovels are mining bitumen 24/7 356 Each loader costs $5 million The teeth wear down every couple of days and must be repaired Truck tires must be replaced every 6 months The dump trucks hauling the moved soil burn 50,000 gallons of diesel per hour For 2- 12 hour shifts, that is 1,200,000 gallon per
day. Kunzig, National Geographic Production Expenses Equipment replacement and repair on a regular basis. Uses twice the volume to produce buy University of Calgary physicist, David Keith said it contains 5x more energy (Kunzig).
200,000 tons of water is heated to clean the Bitumen Energy used to heat the water comes from burning natural gas. We are using the cleanest source of energy to produce the dirtiest, critics said (Kunzig). Kunzig, National Geographic Transportation Cost Modules are HUGE Imperial Oil has stated it will cover the costs of the trucking project, which will entail
hundreds of changes to the route before the massive loads could pass through the area concerned without causing damage. (Jamail) More Transportation "Members of the Nez Perce tribe and individuals were kept in the dark regarding the reason behind expanding the highway, but many now feel that the expansion was driven through in preparation for this Corridor. (Jamail)
Transportation Unfeasible to rebuild all roads Use alternative routes Chip and seal approx. $30, 000/mile (Glaeser) Economic Benefits Canadian Energy Research Institute: We anticipate significant levels of investment and production from the oil sands industry. Under our central scenario or base case, we see investment of just over $100 billion through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and SCO outputs valued at approximately $531 billion.
Oil sands activities will lead to significant economic impacts not only in Alberta but also in other parts of Canada and abroad. Based on our central scenario, the development and production activities lead to a total increase in GDP of some $885 billion allocated as follows: Canada: $789 billion (89%) Alberta: $634 billion (72%) Ontario: $102 billion (11%) Quebec: $8 billion (1%) Other provinces & territories: $45 billion (5%) Other Countries: $96 billion (11%) Economic Benefits Continued As Prices Surge, Oil Giants Turn Sludge Into Gold by Russell Gold, Wall Street Journal It costs about $25 a barrel to produce crude from Canada's oil sands. By comparison, it can cost as little as about $5 a barrel to produce crude in the Middle East and $15 in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico.
Employmen t 465, 000 New jobs were created in the past decade. Unemployment rate was the lowest Canada has seen at 3.4% (environment.alberta.ca) Employment Impact Distribution BUT, Between the years 2004 and 2008 there was years of frenzied tar sand activity.
They lost 322,000 Manufacturing jobs (albertasurtacerights.com) Job Market With only a high school degree, workers can make $100,000 per year. Average age is 31 Most workers want to make fast money then take it somewhere else. Most
workers have no intention of settling in the area. Subject to the boom-and-bust cycle depending on market collapse and increase. Working conditions No effort put forth to build up a community Physician to resident ratio 4,500:1 World Health Organization recommends 600:1 (Lydersen)
10-12 hour shifts with no day off Work place injuries are high and death is common In 2007 154 people were killed on the job and 34,000 injured (Lydersen) Workers sleep in overcrowded, unsanitary, and sometimes violent camp houses. Even with such high wages, most live below the poverty line because of inflation. A trailer costs more than $300,000 and houses are more
than $600,000 (Lydersen) Negative effects on lives Crime rates jumped 23% from 2004-2005 Lethbridge has half the crime rate as Ft. McMurray (oil sands truth) Ft. McMurray= 16.82 per 1000 under 15 years old use drugs Lethbridge= 2.64 Calgary=2.41 Drug abuse and alcoholism has spiked in these mining areas This has led to the highest level of spousal abuse in Canada.
An increased level of suicide and self-injury have occurred in these areas. Alternatives "But it can be a question of values and what we spend our money on." Paul Torcellini, engineer NREL Alternative energy accounts for only 6% of total use Conventional electric=$0.08/ killowatt hr
Solar= $0.20 Wind= $0.04 (Natgeo) Alternatives Thin film on metal roofing materials create solar energy Off Shore Wind farms Ground Thermal heating with geothermal generators
(National Geographic) http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=UILY4wR g2w8 . Citations Kunzig, Robert. Canadian Oil Boom: Scraping Bottom. National Geographic. March 2009.
Lydersen, Kari. Tar Sands: Big Money, but at what Cost? In These Times. Sat. Sept. 5, 2009. Photo by David Boily. AFP, Getty Images. June 2007 Sexton, Matt. Tar Sands: A Brief Overview. Found April 26, 2011 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/usa.html Canadas Tar Sands: Muck and Brass. The Economist. Jan. 20, 2011
Tetley, Deborah. Sex, Drugs, and Alcohol Stalk the Streets of Fort McMurray. Oil Sands Truth. Oct. 22, 2005. http://oilsandstruth.org/sex-drugs-and-alcohol-stalk-streets-fort-mcmurray Walker, Cameron. The Future of Alternative Energy. National Geographic. Oct 28, 2004. Works Cited Koch, Wendy. Proposed U.S.-Canada Oil Pipeline Fuels Debate. USA Today. 22 March, 2011.
us-canada-tar-sands-pipeline-fuels-debate/1>. La Seur, Carrie. Another Day, Another Keystone Pipeline Spill. World Press. 15 January, 2011. . Lydersen, Kari. Michigan Oil Spill Increases Concern Over Tar Sands Pipelines. OnEarth. 13 August, 2010. . Schneider, Keith. Tar Sands Pipeline Poses Health Risks, Campaigners Claim. Guardian.co.uk. 17 February, 2011. .
Citations for Global Environment Issues Dembicki, Geoff. "New oil sands study adds to emissions debate." The Hook. The Tyee, 21 09 2010. Web. 17 Apr 2011. http://thetyee.ca/Blogs/TheHook/Environment/2010/09/21/emissions-debate-CERA/>. (tons of CO2 and percentages source) McLennan, William. "Europe moves to ban imports of tar sands oil from Canada." Ecologist 29 MAR 2011: n. page. Web. 17 Apr 2011. . Greenpeace, . "Water Depletion." Greenpeace Canada. Greenpeace, 25 OCT 2007. Web. 17 Apr 2011. . Zhang, Chi-Chi. "Canadian firm to probe Utah tar sands." AP 13 APR 2011: n. page. Web. 17 Apr 2011. . Citations
Kunzig, Robert. Canadian Oil Boom: Scraping Bottom. National Geographic. March 2009. Casey, Tina. "Boycott of Petroleum Products from Alberta Tar Sands Gathers Steam." Clean Technica. N.p., 21 Aug 2010. Web. 26 Apr 2011. . "Oil Sands: The Cost's of Alberta's "Black Gold"." Worldwatch. N.p., 2011. Web. 25 Apr 2011. . Works Cited
Frevert, Malinda. New Tar Sands Oil Products Increase Likelihood of Spills." Bold Nebraska. Bold Nebraska, 16/02/2011. Web. 13 apr 2011. . Kalamazoo River Oil Ppill." lsj. Lansing State Journal, 22/01/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . Nikiforuk, Andrew. Alberta Fills Pipes With Corrosive Denial. The Tyee. The Tyee, 21/02/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . "No to a New Tar Sands Pipeline." New York Times. New York Times, 02/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . Wiliams, Rebecca. Oil Lingers in Kalamazoo River Part One. Michigan Radio. Michigan Radio, 12/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011.
. Works Cited Frevert, Malinda. New Tar Sands Oil Products Increase Likelihood of Spills." Bold Nebraska. Bold Nebraska, 16/02/2011. Web. 13 apr 2011. . Kalamazoo River Oil Ppill." lsj. Lansing State Journal, 22/01/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . Nikiforuk, Andrew. Alberta Fills Pipes With Corrosive Denial. The Tyee. The Tyee, 21/02/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . "No to a New Tar Sands Pipeline." New York Times. New York Times, 02/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011.
. Wiliams, Rebecca. Oil Lingers in Kalamazoo River Part One. Michigan Radio. Michigan Radio, 12/04/2011. Web. 13 Apr 2011. . Citations Oil Sands: The costs of Alberta's "Black Gold". Eye on Earth, 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2011. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/422 2 . Boycott of Petroleum Products from Alberta Tar Sands Gathers Steam.
Conventionalism. PI = Close Enough Closest Continuer. PI = Close Enough Closest Continuer. So long as there's someone at t whose psychology is appropriately causally tied to the psychology you had at t-1, you persist. Objection: counter-intuitive.
Modelling the broader deployment of demand side management onto the Australian National Electricity Market. by . Liam Wagner . Craig Froome . John Foster . Energy Economics and Management Group. School of Economics. The University of Queensland
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