Control Systems in Plants Plant Hormones What is a Plant Hormone ? Compound produced by one part of an organism that is translocated to other parts
where it triggers a response in target cells and tissues. Functions of Plant Hormones Control plant growth and development by affecting division, elongation, and cell differentiation Effect depends on size of action, stage of plant growth and hormone concentration
Hormonal signal is amplified by gene expression, enzyme activity, or membrane properties Table 39.1 An Overview of Plant Hormones Auxins (IAA) indoleacetic acid: natural auxin in plants
Promotes elongation & secondary growth Apical meristem is the major site of auxin production Inhibits lateral growth Induces female floral parts & fruit Figure 39.8 Apical dominance: with apical bud (left), apical bud removed (right)
Figure 39.7 Cell elongation in response to auxin: the acid growth hypothesis Cytokinins Move from the roots to tissues by moving up xylem Stimulates protein synthesis Made in roots Functions:
1. Cell division and differentiation 2. Apical dominance 3. Anti-aging hormones slow protein deterioration Gibberellins Stimulate elongation of cells Inhibits root growth Stimulate flower part
development- bolting Signals seeds to break dormancy and germinate Figure 39.9 Foolish seedling disease in rice Figure 39.11 The effect of gibberellin treatment on seedless grapes Abscisic Acid (ABA)
Growth inhibitor returns seeds to dormancy inhibits cell division in vascular cambium causes rapid closing of stoma during dry periods promotes positive geotropism Figure 39.12 Precocious germination of mutant maize seeds
Ethylene Gaseous hormone High [auxin] induces release of ethylene Causes senescence (aging) Fruit ripening one bad apple does spoil the whole bunch Abscission loss of leaves on
deciduous trees Figure 39.16 Abscission of a maple leaf Which hormones cause the following.
Apical dominance from apical bud
Abscission Stimulates growth of axillary buds Root growth Stimulates closing of stomata Causes fruit ripening Stimulates seeds to break dormancy and germinate Growth inhibitor Cell division and differentiation
Cell elongation Seedless fruit Answers to Previous Slide: Auxin Ethylene Cytokinins Cytokinins Abscisic acid
Ethylene Gibberellins Abscisic acid Auxins and cytokinins Auxins Auxins Which hormone is made at each location?
Made in roots and transported upwards Found in meristems of apical buds and seed embryos Found in tissues of ripening fruit Leaves stems, roots and green fruit Answers to Previous Slide:
Cytokinins Auxins Ethylene Abscisic Acid Plant Movement A. Tropisms:
growth response toward or away from stimuli 1. Phototropism cells on darker side of shoot elongate faster than cells on bright side due to auxin distribution
auxin move laterally across the tip from the bright to dark side by an unknown mechanism. Cells on the dark side grow 2. Gravitropism (geotropism) gravity
roots --> positive geotropism stems---> negative geotropism Statoliths starch grains in root cap cells, they trigger calcium redistribution which results in
auxin movement in root auxin inhibits cell elongation upperside of root elongates faster than bottom Thigmotropism growth in response to touch tendrils contacts solid and coils increased production of ethylene
3. ` Hydrotropism growth toward water willow tree 4.
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