Swine Evaluation - cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com

Swine Evaluation - cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com

Swine Evaluation Industry Trends Late 1990s Extremes

Very Large Framed Extremely Lean Very Heavy Muscled Productivity not a Focus Structural Correctness not a Focus Current Productive Moderate + Frame Moderate Leanness

Heavy Muscled, but not at Expense of Structure Skeletal Width Soundness What will we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness

Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation Swine Anatomy 2 basic 3 basic segments segments from

dividing top the side from bottom Upper Skeleton Center Skeleton Rear Skeleton (Body) Front Skeleton Lower Skeleton

Front Skeleton Anatomy Ears Chine Blade Always start at the

ground! Neck Crest of Neck Face Elbow Forearm

Knee Declaws, pastern, foot Front Skeleton Anatomy Always start at the ground! Chest Floor Knee

Foot Front Skeleton Anatomy Crest of Neck Chine Blade

Blade Center Skeleton Anatomy Ham Loin Junction Flank

Loin Rear Rib Sheath Center Rib Fore

Rib Center Skeleton Anatomy Blade Loin Blade S

p i n e R i b Loin

Ham Loin Junction S h a p e Rear Skeleton Anatomy

Tail Hip Testicles Always start at the ground! Ham

Stifle Hock Declaws, pastern, foot Rear Skeleton Anatomy Ham Loin Junction Hip

Tail Ham Testicles Always start at the ground! Hock

Foot Hock Foot Female Anatomy Vulva Underline

Swine Anatomy How many areas do we divide the skeleton into from the side, and what are their names? 3 Front, Center, and Rear What are the names of the 2 ways the skeleton is divided between top and bottom? Upper and Lower

What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation

Quick Facts About Structure 1. Top priority for breeding gilts part of functionality 2. High priority for market swine part of practicality 3. Evaluating structure from the ground up is critical 4. Most swine are raised on concrete or wire flooring correct structure is essential!

Structure Why is structure so important? Modern production methods On some type of confinement flooring entire life Concrete, slats, etc Spend 42 days a year in a farrowing crate Housing Housing

Swine Structure Desirable Skeleton Swine Structure Undesirable Skeleton Swine Structure Desirable Skeleton

Swine Structure Undesirable Skeleton Differences in Structure Front Skeleton Even toes and correct angle to pastern

Long and weak pastern Flat Footed Upright and straight pastern Rigid Differences in Structure Front Skeleton

Correct curve and set to knee Knee is correct even with weak pastern Knee coming forward due to

upright pastern Differences in Structure Front Skeleton Correct angle to blade Very slight upright angle to

blade Extremely upright angle to blade Differences in Structure Front Skeleton Even toes, feet point

forward Uneven toes, feet point in Pigeon Toed Uneven toes, feet point out Toes Out Differences in Structure Center Skeleton

Level and flexible spine High and tight spine Differences in Structure Rear Skeleton Level hip and correct set to hock and pastern

Somewhat level hip and straight set to hock and pastern Steep hip and extra set to hock (sickle hocked) Differences in Structure Rear Skeleton

Correct hock placement True and Square In at his hock Cow Hocked Differences in Structure Desirable

Undesirable Swine Structure Where does structure rank as a priority for breeding gilts? 1st, in combination with volume and width, and acceptable growth it is a part of functionality Is structure important for market swine? Yes, it is a high priority because it is the last part of

carcass value we evaluate. Draw the correct angles of a skeleton on the next slide. Draw the Skeleton What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure

Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation Quick Facts About Body Volume and Width 1. Top priority for breeding gilts part of functionality

2. High priority for market swine part of practicality 3. High volume breeding gilts tend to be more functional when farrowing than narrow, tight ribbed gilts 4. High volume market hogs tend to be more productive and practical than narrow, tight ribbed hogs Body Volume and Width Three Areas

Skeletal Width Depth of Body Rib Shape Chest Width Base Width Body Volume and Width Which hog

is wider chested? Body Volume and Width Which hog is wider chested? Body Volume and Width

Which hog is square from blade and chest to the knee and ground? Body Volume and Width Which hog

is square from blade and chest to the knee and ground? Body Volume and Width Which hog is wider and

more genuine in his base width? Body Volume and Width Which hog is wider and more genuine in

his base width? Body Volume and Width Which hog is squarer from hock to ground?

Body Volume and Width Which hog is squarer from hock to ground? Body Volume and Width Which hog is deeper bodied, softer flanked, and appears to have more rib

shape, making him have more body volume? Body Volume and Width Which hog is deeper bodied, softer flanked, and appears to have more rib shape, making him have more body volume? Body Volume and Width Which hog is flat ribbed?

Body Volume and Width Which hog is flat ribbed? Body Volume and Width What are the areas we consider for volume and width? Chest and base, depth of rib, and shape of rib

Body volume and width are parts of what top priority trait in gilts? Functionality Body volume and width are parts of what high priority trait in market hogs? Practicality What do we know? Swine anatomy

Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation Quick Facts About Muscle and Leanness 1. Top priority for market swine part of carcass

value 2. Moderate priority for breeding gilts 3. Muscularity and optimal leanness are required for a market hog to be considered good 4. High volume, wide made hogs tend to be muscular and have optimal leanness, but not always. Need to study shape! Muscle Evaluation Forearm and Blade

Top (Loin) Hip Base width Differences in Muscle Extremely shapely, heavy

muscled and wide based Vs. Narrow Base, flat, tapering ham and non-descript muscle shape Evaluating Leanness Blade Top Line

Jowl Seam of Ham Elbow Pocket Lower Skeleton Differences in Leanness Too lean to be practical. Very raw, reads with total body leanness.

Too fat to have carcass value. Over finished, wasty design. Just about right! Lean, but still has a productive center. Differences in Leanness Look for the hour glass, not

the canoe! Muscle and Leanness Where does muscle and optimal leanness rank for evaluating market hogs? 1st, market hogs must have carcass value Where does it rank for breeding gilts? Moderate priority, most hogs with high volume

and width will have muscle, just need to make sure they are lean enough, and wont take away from the offspring What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are

Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation Quick Facts About Growth Most market hogs are sold between 250-290 pounds Most market hogs are sold based on how much muscle and fat they have, but weight makes up about 80% of the check

Skeletal size is the main contributor to how quickly hogs start becoming fat Growth is important for both breeding gilts and market hogs Areas of Evaluation Growth and Frame Size Face and Neck Height at top

of blades Length of cannon Length of body Differences Growth Which hog appears to have more growth?

Growth Where does growth rank as a priority? It is high for both market and breeding hogs Why is growth important? Weight contributes to a large portion of the value of hogs, and skeletal size contributes to when hogs start becoming fat

What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation

Quick Facts About Balance Vital for show ring and seedstock success, but not very important in the commercial industry Balance is more important in breeding gilts than in market hogs Balance is what sorts hogs that have all of the high and top priority traits Well balanced market hogs without the fundamental priorities cant be good, they can only be well balanced

Balance Good balanced, tall and long fronted, level top line, high tail set, deep full flank, and bone that matches her body type. Awful balance, short and low fronted, high topped, steep

hipped, high flanked, and frail boned. What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences

Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation What are the priorities? Breeding Gilts Market Hogs 1. Functionality = Structure + Volume and Width +

Acceptable Growth 2. Power 3. Balance 1. Carcass Value = Muscle + Optimal Leanness + Acceptable Growth 2. Practicality = Structure + Volume and Width 3. Balance

What do we know? Swine anatomy Correct skeletal structure Where to look for body volume and width Where to look to determine muscle and leanness Where growth indicators are Balance differences Priorities for breeding and market swine evaluation

Questions?

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