Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Supercomputing in Plain English Part I: Overview: What the Heck is Supercomputing? Henry Neeman, Director OU Supercomputing Center for Education & Research University of Oklahoma Information Technology Tuesday February 3 2009 This is an experiment! Its the nature of these kinds of videoconferences that FAILURES ARE GUARANTEED TO HAPPEN! NO PROMISES! So, please bear with us. Hopefully everything will work out well enough. If you lose your connection, you can retry the same kind of connection, or try connecting another way. Remember, if all else fails, you always have the toll free phone bridge to fall back on. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 2 Access Grid This weeks Access Grid (AG) venue: Helium. If you arent sure whether you have AG, you probably dont. Tue Feb 3 Helium Tue Feb 10 Optiverse Tue Feb 17 Monte Carlo Tue Feb 27 Helium

Tue March 3 Titan Tue March 10 NO WORKSHOP Tue March 17 NO WORKSHOP Tue March 24 Axon Tue March 31 Cactus Tue Apr 7

Walkabout Tue Apr 14 Cactus Tue Apr 21 Verlet Many thanks to John Chapman of U Arkansas for setting these up for us. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 3

H.323 (Polycom etc) If you want to use H.323 videoconferencing for example, Polycom then dial 69.77.7.203##12345 any time after 2:00pm. Please connect early, at least today. For assistance, contact Andy Fleming of KanREN/Kan-ed ( [email protected] or 785-865-6434). KanREN/Kan-eds H.323 system can handle up to 40 simultaneous H.323 connections. If you cannot connect, it may be that all 40 are already in use. Many thanks to Andy and KanREN/Kan-ed for providing H.323 access. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 4 iLinc We have unlimited simultaneous iLinc connections available. If youre already on the SiPE e-mail list, then you should receive an e-mail about iLinc before each session begins. If you want to use iLinc, please follow the directions in the

iLinc e-mail. For iLinc, you MUST use either Windows (XP strongly preferred) or MacOS X with Internet Explorer. To use iLinc, youll need to download a client program to your PC. Its free, and setup should take only a few minutes. Many thanks to Katherine Kantardjieff of California State U Fullerton for providing the iLinc licenses. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 5 QuickTime Broadcaster If you cannot connect via the Access Grid, H.323 or iLinc, then you can connect via QuickTime: rtsp://129.15.254.141/test_hpc09.sdp We recommend using QuickTime Player for this, because weve tested it successfully. We recommend upgrading to the latest version at: http://www.apple.com/quicktime/ When you run QuickTime Player, traverse the menus File -> Open URL

Then paste in the rstp URL into the textbox, and click OK. Many thanks to Kevin Blake of OU for setting up QuickTime Broadcaster for us. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 6 Phone Bridge If all else fails, you can call into our toll free phone bridge: 1-866-285-7778, access code 6483137# Please mute yourself and use the phone to listen. Dont worry, well call out slide numbers as we go. Please use the phone bridge ONLY if you cannot connect any other way: the phone bridge is charged per connection per minute, so our preference is to minimize the number of connections. Many thanks to Amy Apon and U Arkansas for providing the toll free phone bridge. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009

7 Please Mute Yourself No matter how you connect, please mute yourself, so that we cannot hear you. At OU, we will turn off the sound on all conferencing technologies. That way, we wont have problems with echo cancellation. Of course, that means we cannot hear questions. So for questions, youll need to send some kind of text. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 8 Questions via Text: iLinc or E-mail Ask questions via text, using one of the following: iLincs text messaging facility; e-mail to [email protected] All questions will be read out loud and then answered out loud.

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 9 Thanks for helping! OSCER operations staff (Brandon George, Dave Akin, Brett Zimmerman, Josh Alexander) OU Research Campus staff (Patrick Calhoun, Josh Maxey) Kevin Blake, OU IT (videographer) Katherine Kantardjieff, CSU Fullerton

John Chapman and Amy Apon, U Arkansas Andy Fleming, KanREN/Kan-ed Testing: Gordon Springer, U Missouri Dan Weber, Tinker Air Force Base Henry Cecil, Southeastern Oklahoma State U This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCI-0636427, CI-TEAM Demonstration: Cyberinfrastructure Education for Bioinformatics and Beyond. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 10 This is an experiment! Its the nature of these kinds of videoconferences that FAILURES ARE GUARANTEED TO HAPPEN! NO PROMISES! So, please bear with us. Hopefully everything will work out well enough. If you lose your connection, you can retry the same kind of connection, or try connecting another way.

Remember, if all else fails, you always have the toll free phone bridge to fall back on. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 11 Supercomputing Exercises Want to do the Supercomputing in Plain English exercises? The first exercise is already posted at: http://www.oscer.ou.edu/education.php If you dont yet have a supercomputer account, you can get a temporary account, just for the Supercomputing in Plain English exercises, by sending e-mail to: [email protected] Please note that this account is for doing the exercises only, and will be shut down at the end of the series. This weeks Introductory exercise will teach you how to compile and run jobs on OUs big Linux cluster supercomputer, which is named Sooner. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 12 Supercomputing in Plain English What is Supercomputing? Supercomputing is the biggest, fastest computing right this minute. Likewise, a supercomputer is one of the biggest, fastest computers right this minute. So, the definition of supercomputing is constantly changing. Rule of Thumb: A supercomputer is typically at least 100 times as powerful as a PC. Jargon: Supercomputing is also known as High Performance Computing (HPC) or High End Computing (HEC) or Cyberinfrastructure (CI). Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009

14 Fastest Supercomputer vs. Moore Fastest Supercomputer in the World 10000000 Speed in GFLOPs 1000000 100000 10000 Fastest Moore 1000 GFLOPs: billions of calculations per second

100 10 1 1992 1997 2002 2007 Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 15 What is Supercomputing About? Size

Speed Laptop Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 16 What is Supercomputing About? Size: Many problems that are interesting to scientists and engineers cant fit on a PC usually because they need more than a few GB of RAM, or more than a few 100 GB of disk. Speed: Many problems that are interesting to scientists and engineers would take a very very long time to run on a PC: months or even years. But a problem that would take a month on a PC might take only a few hours on a

supercomputer. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 17 What Is HPC Used For? Simulation of physical phenomena, such as [1] Data mining: finding needles of information in a haystack of data, such as

Weather forecasting Galaxy formation Oil reservoir management Gene sequencing Signal processing Detecting storms that might produce tornados Moore, OK Tornadic Storm May 3 1999[2] Visualization: turning a vast sea of data into

pictures that a scientist can understand [3] Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 18 Supercomputing Issues The tyranny of the storage hierarchy Parallelism: doing multiple things at the same time Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 19 OSCER

What is OSCER? Multidisciplinary center Division of OU Information Technology Provides: Supercomputing education Supercomputing expertise Supercomputing resources: hardware, storage, software For:

Undergrad students Grad students Staff Faculty Their collaborators (including off campus) Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 21 Who is OSCER? Academic Depts History of Science Aerospace & Mechanical Engr Anthropology Industrial Engr Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Geography Biological Survey Geology & Geophysics

Library & Information Studies Botany & Microbiology Chemical, Biological & Materials Engr Mathematics Chemistry & Biochemistry Meteorology Civil Engr & Environmental Science Petroleum & Geological Engr Computer Science Physics & Astronomy Economics Psychology Electrical & Computer Engr Radiological Sciences Finance Surgery E Health & Sport Sciences Zoology More than 150 faculty & staff in 26 depts in Colleges of Arts & Sciences, Atmospheric & Geographic Sciences, Business, Earth & Energy, Engineering, and Medicine with more to come!

E E Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 E 22 Who is OSCER? Groups

Instructional Development Program Interaction, Discovery, Exploration, Adaptation Laboratory Microarray Core Facility OU Information Technology

OU Office of the VP for Research Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics Robotics, Evolution, Adaptation, and Learning Laboratory Sasaki Applied Meteorology Research Institute Symbiotic Computing Laboratory E E Advanced Center for Genome Technology Center for Analysis & Prediction of Storms Center for Aircraft & Systems/Support Infrastructure Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale

Meteorological Studies Center for Engineering Optimization Fears Structural Engineering Laboratory Human Technology Interaction Center Institute of Exploration & Development Geosciences E E Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 23 Who? External Collaborators 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. E 8. 19. 20. 21. 22.

23. 24. 25. E 2. California State Polytechnic University Pomona (minority-serving, masters) Colorado State University Contra Costa College (CA, minority-serving, 2year) Delaware State University (EPSCoR, masters) Earlham College (IN, bachelors) East Central University (OK, EPSCoR, masters) Emporia State University (KS, EPSCoR, masters) Great Plains Network E Harvard University (MA) Kansas State University (EPSCoR) Langston University (OK, minority-serving,

EPSCoR, masters) Longwood University (VA, masters) Marshall University (WV, EPSCoR, masters) Navajo Technical College (NM, tribal, EPSCoR, 2-year) NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory (EPSCoR) NOAA Storm Prediction Center (EPSCoR) Oklahoma Baptist University (EPSCoR, bachelors) Oklahoma City University (EPSCoR, masters) E 1. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. Oklahoma Climatological Survey (EPSCoR) Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (EPSCoR) Oklahoma School of Science & Mathematics (EPSCoR, high school) Purdue University (IN) Riverside Community College (CA, 2-year) St. Cloud State University (MN, masters) St. Gregorys University (OK, EPSCoR, bachelors) Southwestern Oklahoma State University (tribal, EPSCoR, masters) Syracuse University (NY)

Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi (masters) University of Arkansas (EPSCoR) University of Arkansas Little Rock (EPSCoR) University of Central Oklahoma (EPSCoR) University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign University of Kansas (EPSCoR) University of Nebraska-Lincoln (EPSCoR) University of North Dakota (EPSCoR) University of Northern Iowa (masters) YOU COULD BE HERE! Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 24 Who Are the Users? Approximately 480 users so far, including: Roughly equal split between students vs faculty/staff (students are the bulk of the active users); many off campus users (roughly 20%);

more being added every month. Comparison: TeraGrid, consisting of 11 resource provide sites across the US, has ~4500 unique users. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 25 Biggest Consumers Center for Analysis & Prediction of Storms: daily real time weather forecasting Oklahoma Center for High Energy Physics: simulation and data analysis of banging tiny particles together at unbelievably high speeds Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 26 Why OSCER? Computational Science & Engineering has become sophisticated enough to take its place alongside experimentation and theory. Most students and most faculty and staff dont learn much CSE, because its seen as needing too much computing background, and needs HPC, which is seen as very hard to learn. HPC can be hard to learn: few materials for novices; most documents written for experts as reference guides.

We need a new approach: HPC and CSE for computing novices OSCERs mandate! Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 27 Why Bother Teaching Novices? Application scientists & engineers typically know their applications very well, much better than a collaborating computer scientist ever would. Commercial software lags far behind the research

community. Many potential CSE users dont need full time CSE and HPC staff, just some help. One HPC expert can help dozens of research groups. Todays novices are tomorrows top researchers, especially because todays top researchers will eventually retire. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 28 What Does OSCER Do? Teaching Science and engineering faculty from all over America learn supercomputing at OU by playing with a jigsaw puzzle (NCSI @ OU 2004). Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 29 What Does OSCER Do? Rounds

OU undergrads, grad students, staff and faculty learn how to use supercomputing in their specific research. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 30 OK Supercomputing Symposium Wed Oct 7 2009 @ OU Over 235 registrations already! Over 150 in the first day, over 200 in the first week, over 225 in the first month. 2003 Keynote: Peter Freeman 2004 Keynote: NSF Sangtae Kim Computer & NSF Shared

Information Cyberinfrastructure Science & Division Director Engineering Assistant Director 2005 Keynote: 2006 Keynote: Walt Brooks Dan Atkins NASA Advanced Head of NSFs Supercomputing Office of Division Director Cyber- infrastructure Parallel Programming Workshop FREE! Tue Oct 6 2009 @ OU Sponsored by SC09 Education Program http://symposium2009.oscer.ou.edu/

FREE! Symposium Wed Oct 7 2009 @ OU 2007 Keynote: Jay Boisseau Director Texas Advanced Computing Center U. Texas Austin Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 2008 Keynote: Jos Munoz Deputy Office Director/ Senior Scientific Advisor Office of Cyberinfrastructure National Science Foundation 31

SC09 Summer Workshops This coming summer, the SC09 Education Program, part of the SC09 (Supercomputing 2009) conference, is planning to hold two weeklong supercomputing-related workshops in Oklahoma, for FREE (except you pay your own travel): At OU: Parallel Programming & Cluster Computing, date to be decided, weeklong, for FREE At OSU: Computational Chemistry (tentative), date to be decided, weeklong, for FREE Well alert everyone when the details have been ironed out and the registration webpage opens. Please note that you must apply for a seat, and acceptance CANNOT be guaranteed. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 32 OSCER Resources Dell Intel Xeon Linux Cluster 1,072 Intel Xeon CPU chips/4288 cores

526 dual socket/quad core Harpertown 2.0 GHz, 16 GB each 3 dual socket/quad core Harpertown 2.66 GHz, 16 GB each 3 dual socket/quad core Clovertown 2.33 GHz, 16 GB each 2 x quad socket/quad core Tigerton, 2.4 GHz, 128 GB each 8,768 GB RAM ~105 TB globally accessible disk QLogic Infiniband Force10 Networks Gigabit Ethernet Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5

Peak speed: 34.45 TFLOPs* *TFLOPs: trillion calculations per second sooner.oscer.ou.edu Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 34 Dell Intel Xeon Linux Cluster DEBUTED NOVEMBER 2008 AT: #91 worldwide #47 in the US #14 among US academic #10 among US academic excluding TeraGrid #2 in the Big 12 #1 in the Big 12 excluding TeraGrid sooner.oscer.ou.edu Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 35 Dell Intel Xeon Linux Cluster Purchased mid-July 2008 First friendly user Aug 15 2008 Full production Oct 3 2008 Christmas Day 2008: >~75% of nodes and ~66% of cores were in use. sooner.oscer.ou.edu Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 36 What is a Cluster? [W]hat a ship is It's not just a keel and hull and a deck and sails. That's what a ship needs. But what a ship is ... is freedom.

Captain Jack Sparrow Pirates of the Caribbean Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 37 What a Cluster is . A cluster needs of a collection of small computers, called nodes, hooked together by an interconnection network (or interconnect for short). It also needs software that allows the nodes to communicate over the interconnect. But what a cluster is is all of these components working together as if theyre one big computer ... a super computer. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 38

An Actual Cluster Interconnect Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 Nodes 39 Condor Pool Condor is a software technology that allows idle desktop PCs to be used for number crunching. OU IT has deployed a large Condor pool (773 desktop PCs in IT student labs all over campus). It provides a huge amount of additional computing power more than was available in all of OSCER in 2005. 13+ TFLOPs peak compute speed. And, the cost is very very low almost literally free. Also, weve been seeing empirically that Condor gets about 80% of each PCs time. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 40 Tape Library Overland Storage NEO 8000 LTO-3/LTO-4 Current capacity 100 TB raw Expandable to 400 TB raw Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 41 National Lambda Rail Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 42

Internet2 www.internet2.edu Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 43 A Quick Primer on Hardware Henrys Laptop Dell Latitude D620 [4]

Pentium 4 Core Duo T2400 1.83 GHz w/2 MB L2 Cache (Yonah) 2 GB (2048 MB) 667 MHz DDR2 SDRAM 100 GB 7200 RPM SATA Hard Drive DVD+RW/CD-RW Drive (8x) 1 Gbps Ethernet Adapter 56 Kbps Phone Modem Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 45 Typical Computer Hardware

Central Processing Unit Primary storage Secondary storage Input devices Output devices Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 46 Central Processing Unit Also called CPU or processor: the brain Components Control Unit: figures out what to do next for example, whether to load data from memory, or to add two values together, or to store data into memory, or to decide which of two possible actions to perform (branching)

Arithmetic/Logic Unit: performs calculations for example, adding, multiplying, checking whether two values are equal Registers: where data reside that are being used right now Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 47 Primary Storage Main Memory Cache

Also called RAM (Random Access Memory) Where data reside when theyre being used by a program thats currently running Small area of much faster memory Where data reside when theyre about to be used and/or have been used recently Primary storage is volatile: values in primary storage disappear when the power is turned off. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 48 Secondary Storage

Where data and programs reside that are going to be used in the future Secondary storage is non-volatile: values dont disappear when power is turned off. Examples: hard disk, CD, DVD, Blu-ray, magnetic tape, floppy disk Many are portable: can pop out the CD/DVD/tape/floppy and take it with you Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 49 Input/Output

Input devices for example, keyboard, mouse, touchpad, joystick, scanner Output devices for example, monitor, printer, speakers Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 50 The Tyranny of the Storage Hierarchy The Storage Hierarchy Fast, expensive, few

Slow, cheap, a lot Registers Cache memory Main memory (RAM) Hard disk Removable media (CD, DVD etc) Internet [5] Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 52 RAM is Slow The speed of data transfer between Main Memory and the

CPU is much slower than the speed of calculating, so the CPU spends most of its time waiting for data to come in or go out. CPU 351 GB/sec[6] Bottleneck 3.4 GB/sec[7] (1%) Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 53 Why Have Cache? Cache is much closer to the speed of the CPU, so the CPU doesnt have to wait nearly as long for stuff thats already in cache: it can do more operations per second!

CPU 14.2 GB/sec (4x RAM)[7] 3.4 GB/sec[7] (1%) Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 54 Henrys Laptop Dell Latitude D620 [4]

Pentium 4 Core Duo T2400 1.83 GHz w/2 MB L2 Cache (Yonah) 2 GB (2048 MB) 667 MHz DDR2 SDRAM 100 GB 7200 RPM SATA Hard Drive DVD+RW/CD-RW Drive (8x) 1 Gbps Ethernet Adapter 56 Kbps Phone Modem Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 55 Storage Speed, Size, Cost Henrys Laptop Registers (Pentium 4

Core Duo 1.83 GHz) Cache Memory (L2) Main Memory (667 MHz DDR2 SDRAM) Speed (MB/sec) [peak] 359,792[6] (14,640 MFLOP/s*) 14,500 [7]

3400 [7] Size (MB) 304 bytes** 2 Cost ($/MB) Hard Drive (SATA 7200 RPM) 100 [9]

Ethernet (1000 Mbps) 125 DVD+RW (8x) 10.8 Phone Modem (56 Kbps) 0.007 [10] 2048 100,000

unlimited unlimited unlimited $0.0001 charged per month (typically) $0.00003 charged per month (typically) [11] $5 [12]

$0.03 [12] [12] [12] * MFLOP/s: millions of floating point operations per second ** 8 32-bit integer registers, 8 80-bit floating point registers, 8 64-bit MMX integer registers, 8 128-bit floating point XMM registers Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 56 Parallelism Parallelism Parallelism means doing multiple things at

the same time: you can get more work done in the same time. Less fish More fish! Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 58 The Jigsaw Puzzle Analogy Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 59 Serial Computing Suppose you want to do a jigsaw puzzle that has, say, a thousand pieces. We can imagine that itll take you a

certain amount of time. Lets say that you can put the puzzle together in an hour. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 60 Shared Memory Parallelism If Scott sits across the table from you, then he can work on his half of the puzzle and you can work on yours. Once in a while, youll both reach into the pile of pieces at the same time (youll contend for the same resource), which will cause a little bit of slowdown. And from time to time youll have to work together (communicate) at the interface between his half and yours. The speedup will be nearly 2-to-1: yall

might take 35 minutes instead of 30. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 61 The More the Merrier? Now lets put Paul and Charlie on the other two sides of the table. Each of you can work on a part of the puzzle, but therell be a lot more contention for the shared resource (the pile of puzzle pieces) and a lot more communication at the interfaces. So yall will get noticeably less than a 4-to-1 speedup, but youll still have an improvement, maybe something like 3-to-1: the four of you can get it done in 20 minutes instead of an hour. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009

62 Diminishing Returns If we now put Dave and Tom and Horst and Brandon on the corners of the table, theres going to be a whole lot of contention for the shared resource, and a lot of communication at the many interfaces. So the speedup yall get will be much less than wed like; youll be lucky to get 5-to-1. So we can see that adding more and more workers onto a shared resource is eventually going to have a diminishing return. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 63 Distributed Parallelism

Now lets try something a little different. Lets set up two tables, and lets put you at one of them and Scott at the other. Lets put half of the puzzle pieces on your table and the other half of the pieces on Scotts. Now yall can work completely independently, without any contention for a shared resource. BUT, the cost per communication is MUCH higher (you have to scootch your tables together), and you need the ability to split up (decompose) the puzzle pieces reasonably evenly, which may be tricky to do for some puzzles. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 64 More Distributed Processors Its a lot easier to add more processors in distributed parallelism. But, you always have to be aware of the need to decompose the problem

and to communicate among the processors. Also, as you add more processors, it may be harder to load balance the amount of work that each processor gets. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 65 Load Balancing Load balancing means ensuring that everyone completes their workload at roughly the same time. For example, if the jigsaw puzzle is half grass and half sky, then you can do the grass and Scott can do the sky, and then yall only have to communicate at the horizon and the amount of work that each of you does on your own is roughly equal. So youll get pretty good speedup. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 66 Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 67 EA SY Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard.

Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 68 H AR D EA SY Load Balancing Load balancing can be easy, if the problem splits up into chunks of roughly equal size, with one chunk per processor. Or load balancing can be very hard. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 69

Moores Law Moores Law In 1965, Gordon Moore was an engineer at Fairchild Semiconductor. He noticed that the number of transistors that could be squeezed onto a chip was doubling about every 18 months. It turns out that computer speed is roughly proportional to the number of transistors per unit area. Moore wrote a paper about this concept, which became known as Moores Law. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 71 Fastest Supercomputer vs. Moore Fastest Supercomputer in the World 10000000 Speed in GFLOPs

1000000 100000 10000 Fastest Moore 1000 GFLOPs: billions of calculations per second 100 10 1 1992 1997

2002 2007 Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 72 log(Speed) Moores Law in Practice U CP Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 73

or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw i dt h Moores Law in Practice U CP Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview

Tuesday February 3 2009 74 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw i dt h Moores Law in Practice U CP

RAM Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 75 or kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw i dt h

Moores Law in Practice U CP RAM Latency k r o w t 1/Ne Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 76 or

kB Ne tw log(Speed) an dw i dt h Moores Law in Practice U CP RAM Latency k r

o w t 1/Ne Software Year Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 77 Why Bother? Why Bother with HPC at All? Its clear that making effective use of HPC takes quite a bit of effort, both learning how and developing software. That seems like a lot of trouble to go to just to get your code to run faster. Its nice to have a code that used to take a day, now run in an hour. But if you can afford to wait a day, whats the

point of HPC? Why go to all that trouble just to get your code to run faster? Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 79 Why HPC is Worth the Bother What HPC gives you that you wont get elsewhere is the ability to do bigger, better, more exciting science. If your code can run faster, that means that you can tackle much bigger problems in the same amount of time that you used to need for smaller problems. HPC is important not only for its own sake, but also because what happens in HPC today will be on your desktop in about 10 to 15 years: it puts you ahead of the

curve. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 80 The Future is Now Historically, this has always been true: Whatever happens in supercomputing today will be on your desktop in 10 15 years. So, if you have experience with supercomputing, youll be ahead of the curve when things get to the desktop. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 81 OK Supercomputing Symposium Wed Oct 7 2009 @ OU Over 235 registrations already!

Over 150 in the first day, over 200 in the first week, over 225 in the first month. 2003 Keynote: Peter Freeman 2004 Keynote: NSF Sangtae Kim Computer & NSF Shared Information Cyberinfrastructure Science & Division Director Engineering Assistant Director 2005 Keynote: 2006 Keynote: Walt Brooks Dan Atkins NASA Advanced Head of NSFs

Supercomputing Office of Division Director Cyber- infrastructure Parallel Programming Workshop FREE! Tue Oct 6 2009 @ OU Sponsored by SC09 Education Program FREE! Symposium Wed Oct 7 2009 @ OU http://symposium2009.oscer.ou.edu/ 2007 Keynote: Jay Boisseau Director Texas Advanced Computing Center U. Texas Austin Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009

2008 Keynote: Jos Munoz Deputy Office Director/ Senior Scientific Advisor Office of Cyberinfrastructure National Science Foundation 82 SC09 Summer Workshops This coming summer, the SC09 Education Program, part of the SC09 (Supercomputing 2009) conference, is planning to hold two weeklong supercomputing-related workshops in Oklahoma, for FREE (except you pay your own travel): At OU: Parallel Programming & Cluster Computing, date to be decided, weeklong, for FREE At OSU: Computational Chemistry (tentative), date to be decided, weeklong, for FREE Well alert everyone when the details have been ironed out and the registration webpage opens.

Please note that you must apply for a seat, and acceptance CANNOT be guaranteed. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 83 Thanks for helping! OSCER operations staff (Brandon George, Dave Akin, Brett Zimmerman, Josh Alexander) OU Research Campus staff (Patrick Calhoun, Josh Maxey)

Kevin Blake, OU IT (videographer) Katherine Kantardjieff, CSU Fullerton John Chapman and Amy Apon, U Arkansas Andy Fleming, KanREN/Kan-ed Testing: Gordon Springer, U Missouri Dan Weber, Tinker Air Force Base Henry Cecil, Southeastern Oklahoma State U This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. OCI-0636427, CI-TEAM Demonstration: Cyberinfrastructure Education for Bioinformatics and Beyond. Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 84 Thanks for your attention! Questions? www.oscer.ou.edu References

[1] Image by Greg Bryan, Columbia U. [2] Update on the Collaborative Radar Acquisition Field Test (CRAFT): Planning for the Next Steps. Presented to NWS Headquarters August 30 2001. [3] See http://hneeman.oscer.ou.edu/hamr.html for details. [4] http://www.dell.com/ [5] http://www.vw.com/newbeetle/ [6] Richard Gerber, The Software Optimization Cookbook: High-performance Recipes for the Intel Architecture. Intel Press, 2002, pp. 161-168. [7] RightMark Memory Analyzer. http://cpu.rightmark.org/ [8] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/papers/24943801.pdf [9] http://www.seagate.com/cda/products/discsales/personal/family/0,1085,621,00.html [10] http://www.samsung.com/Products/OpticalDiscDrive/SlimDrive/OpticalDiscDrive_SlimDrive_SN_S082D.asp?page=Specifications [11] ftp://download.intel.com/design/Pentium4/manuals/24896606.pdf [12] http://www.pricewatch.com/ Supercomputing in Plain English: Overview Tuesday February 3 2009 86

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    hour hand. rain forest. graham cracker. rhinestone. chain reaction. racquetball. ... but little by little they began to raise their voices. Raise. is often confused with . rise. ... Juan had let the alarm clock buzz and gone back to...
  • Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? - The Teacher's Guide

    Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? - The Teacher's Guide

    A one piece B five pieces C two pieces D three pieces Hedgehog Bakes a Cake www.theteachersguide.com Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? Question 1 $100 Where does this story take place? A Hedgehog's kitchen B Hedgehog's yard C Rabbit's...
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    AP European History Chapter 21 Reaction, Revolution, and ...

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    Regulation of Gene Expression - Welcome to Ms. Ferrari's ...

    Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes occurs at three different levels. Transcription * most common during initiation . Translation. After protein has been synthesized