OCLC Research: System-wide Organization Lorcan Dempsey Brian Lavoie Constance Malpas FutureCast: Shaping Libraries in a Digital Age Washington, DC June 8, 2011 Projects (a sample) Evolving responsibility to the scholarly record National presence in the global library resource Ithaka collaboration on print management Rethinking the boundaries of the academic library Managing research collections in the cloud Shared print collections: modeling infrastructure System-wide Organization 2 Rethinking the boundaries of the academic library Pull of the Network Push of Economics
Academic Libraries ? System-wide Organization 3 Academic libraries: Coasian interpretation Framework to organize thinking about shifts in boundaries of academic library in network environment lingering climate of austerity Two questions: What is an academic library? A bundle of information-related resources and services that a university has chosen to provide internally What determines the boundaries of the library? Transaction costs Transaction costs rise: Internalize Ronald Coase System-wide Organization Organization
Activity Transaction costs fall: Externalize External Provider 4 Network is reducing transaction costs Computing and network technologies reduce the cost of establishing & managing interactions with external parties which creates incentive to re-assess mix of internalized & externalized activities which reconfigures organizational boundaries (i.e., boundaries of the library) System-wide Organization 5 Examples Company
Research Library System-wide Organization 6 Harvard Business Review (1999) System-wide Organization 7 Unbundling the library Customer Relationship Management: Service-oriented, customization, personal engagement Product Innovation: Deploy new capacities Speed, flexibility, entrepreneurial Internalize more of this Externalize more of this
Academic libraries in the network environment System-wide Organization Infrastructure: Back-office capacities, routine workflows 8 Mechanisms for externalizatioInstitution n Sourcing Collaborative DSpace Scaling Group Tripod: (Tri-college library catalog) OhioLink Bibliographic Standards (resource sharing &
Public (LC Classification, negotiation of licenses & MESH, LCSH) subscriptions) VTLS Virtua Third-Party (hosted ILS) System-wide Organization JISC Collections Web RePEc PubMed worldcat.org 9 Google Books/Scholar Mendeley Sourcing Third-Party
1 Group Web Scaling System-wide Organization 10 Publications Rethinking the Boundaries of the Academic Library (December 2010) OCLC Nextspace http://www.oclc.org/nextspace/017/research.htm [brief summary of major concepts] Full OCLC Research Report forthcoming soon Contacts: Lorcan Dempsey: [email protected] Brian Lavoie: [email protected] System-wide Organization 11 Cloud-sourcing Research Collections Case study in unbundling of library operations, externalization of print repository function
NYU, HathiTrust, ReCAP consortium partners Columbia University, Princeton University, New York Public Library and OCLC Research Funded in part by Andrew W. Mellon Foundation How is the emerging infrastructure for shared stewardship of the mass-digitized corpu likely to alter legacy print management strategi in research libraries? System-wide Organization 12 Key Finding: Mass digitized corpus in Hathi mirrors academic print book collection Distribution of Titles in HathiTrust Digital Library by Subject and Copyright Status (June 2010) Health Facilities, Nursing Medicine By Body System Chemistry A critical mass of retrospective literature in the humanities, social sciences Psychology Performing Arts Mathematics
Agriculture Medicine In Copyright Physical Sciences Education Sociology 80% or more in copyright Political Science Engineering & Technology Philosophy & Religion Unknown Classification Language, Linguistics & Literature N = 3.64M titles 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 500,000 600,000 700,000 800,000 900,000 1,000,000 Titles / Editions OCLC Research, June 2010. System-wide Organization 13
Key Finding: Mass digitized corpus in Hathi duplicates substantial portion of academic print 60% Duplication of ARL University Library Holdings in HathiTrust Digital Library 50% Median duplication in December 2010: 33% Jun-09 Linear (Jun-09) Linear (Jun-09) Linear (Jun-09) Jun-10 Linear (Jun-10) Median duplication in June 2010: 31% Linear (Jun-10) Dec-10 Linear (Dec-10) Linear (Dec-10) % of Titles Duplicated
40% 30% 20% 10% Median duplication in June 2009: 19% 0% 0 20 OCLC Research, January 2011 40 60 80 100 120 Rank in ARL Investment Index (2007-2008) System-wide Organization
14 Key Finding: Mass digitized corpus in Hathi is duplicated in large-scale print storage collections 3,500,000 Unique Titles / Editions 3,000,000 ~75% of mass digitized corpus is backed up in one or more shared print repositories 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 500,000 0 Sep-09 Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec-09 Jan-10 Feb-10 Mar-10 Apr-10 May-10 Jun-10
Mass digitized books in Hathi digital repository OCLC Research, June 2010 System-wide Organization Mass digitized books in shared print repositories 15 An opportunity and a challenge >50% of titles are widely held library print supply chain will be needed for some time An opportunity to rationalize holdings, but >80% of titles are in copyright OCLC Research. June 2010 System-wide Organization 16
Current Status Final report published January 2011 www.oclc.org/research/publications/library/2011/2011-01.pdf Continuing to harvest and process HathiTrust data Special thanks: Roy Tennant & Bruce Washburn Focus: monitoring shifts in subject, language and print holdings distribution of aggregate resource; volatility of rights data Contact: Constance Malpas ([email protected]) System-wide Organization 17 Optimal locus of coordination, shared service provision may vary Sourcing Third-Party Straight Externalization 3
Registry infrastructure Cooperative platform Web-scale Externalization New England Regional Depository Collaborative Externalization Public 2 Collaborative SelfSufficiency Internalized Institution 1 4 WEST CIC Shared Print Hathi Print NN/LM Print Archiving
UK Research Reserve University of Chicago Mansueto Library Group Web Scaling System-wide Organization 18 Shared Research Collections in Context OCLC Research Library Partners N=111 (June 2011) and growing At minimum 196M WorldCat holdings [1 Shared stewardship responsibility 52M 52M publications
publications [23% [23% of of WorldCat] WorldCat] Median WorldCat holdings 16M 16M OCLC Research Lib. Partners: 1.3M Median % unique: 6% unique unique ORLP ORLP holdings holdings CLC Research. Data current as of June 2011. System-wide Organization 19
N=15,9M unique holdings in OCLC Research Library Partner collection AN# SZ9XM NHL UXG EUW COO HUC MYG JPG MUQ IBV CLART UBY NAR UPM UV0 IXA CGU WAU MEAUC INU ZYU YYP SUC NJR NGU WYU IND
PAT MTG AZU YSM AS0 TXKAM EMU IPS DKB 0% Special Collections repositories, IRLA, non-North American universities Top third ARL Institutional capacity to uphold traditional stewardship mission varies across OCLC Research Libraries Partnership Mid-tier ARL Proportion of uniquely-held titles in library collection 10% 20% 30% 40%
50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% CLC Research. Data current as of June 2011. System-wide Organization 20 Stewardship is an immense privilege ... . . . and a considerable institutional investment. Assuming (improbably) that every ORLP holding in WorldCat represents a single print volume in open stacks: [196M vols * $4.26] = $ 839M aggregate annual cost* or at best
[196M vols * $ .86] = $ 232M aggregate annual cost* the library system depends on the of this are collective resource -a ifsurvivability those same volumes managed in high-density more cost-effective, cooperative strategy stores is needed Courant & Nielson On the cost of keeping a book (CLIR, 2010) System-wide Organization 21 OCLC Research Library Partnership Overlap with HathiTrust (May 2011) Median holdings 1.3M 60% Overlap with HathiTrust 50%
40% 30% 20% Libraries in this quadrant likely to exercise greatest pressure? Median overlap 31% 10% 0% 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 N=~4.3M titles 10,000,000
12,000,000 WorldCat Holdings CLC Research. Data current as of May 2011. System-wide Organization 22 60% 50% Overlap with HathiTrust Stony Brook Kansas Boston 40% Houston Latrobe Dartmouth Brown
Penn Chicago Ohio State 30% UT Austin BYU Oxford Stanford Cornell Yale Library of Congress Cambridge National Library of Australia 20% National Library of Scotland 10% Swiss National Library National Library of Denmark
0% 0 2,000,000 4,000,000 6,000,000 8,000,000 10,000,000 12,000,000 WorldCat Holdings System-wide Organization 23 Shared Print management: institutional imperatives may be strong >60% of mass-digitized titles in OCLC Research Library Partnership are widely-held Pull of the network
Push of economic drivers Combine to create powerful incentives to externalize print management operations N=4.3M titles CLC Research. Data current as of May 2011. System-wide Organization 24 but core infrastructure is lacking 4.3M titles in OCLC Research Library Partner collections New policy frameworks; discovery, authentication and delivery services needed to achieve this CLC Research. Data current as of May 2011. System-wide Organization 25 Print Archives Pilot project Collaborative effort - OCLC Cooperative Platform and
OCLC Research Transitioning bibliographic infrastructure built for cooperative cataloging to one adapted for shared resource management Leveraging Local Holdings Record as item-level holdings registry; 583 Action Note for disclosing retention commitments and condition statements Participating libraries: Stanford, UCLA, UC San Diego, UC SRLF, University of Oregon, University of Minnesota, University of Indiana, and CRL System-wide Organization 26 Current Status Draft metadata guidelines in review; sample LHR creation late June; data loading in July; testing in August Documentation: Draft metadata guidelines [Google Docs] Update sessions [SlideShare] Contacts: Kathryn Harnish ([email protected]) Constance Malpas ([email protected]) Dennis Massie ([email protected]) System-wide Organization 27
Thanks for your attention. Lorcan Dempsey ([email protected]) Brian Lavoie ([email protected]) Constance Malpas ([email protected]) Next Up: 3:00 3:50 Project Briefings, Part I Research Information Management Salon B Metadata Support & Management Salon C The SHARES Partnership Salon F 4:00 4:50 Project Briefings, Part II System-wide Organization Salon B OCLC Innovation Lab and the OCLC Developer Network Salon F Mobilizing Unique Materials Salon C 5:00 6:30 Reception Leavey Esplanade System-wide Organization 29
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