Sponges and Cnidarians - avon-schools.org

Sponges and Cnidarians - avon-schools.org

Sponges and Cnidarians Sponges Sponges Intro. Origin Evolution:

believed to have evolved from protists Collar cells: are almost identical to many flagellated protist cells Uses of collar cells:

Sponges Intro, cont. Diversit y Species #:

8300 Variety: 3% live in freshwater Variety of shapes, sizes and colors Live at a variety

Characteristics of Sponges Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera They are mostly marine (live in salt water) # of cells: multicellular Body contains pores, canals

and chambers that allow for water flow Characteristics of Sponges Symmetry: radial Interior surface: lined collar cells (choanocyte)

with Choanocyte: a flagellated collar cell that lines the inner surface of sponges Choanocyte

Beating flagella Create water current Capture food and water particles

Choanocyte Collar is made of microvilli Why? To create a filtering

device to collect food Choanocyte The food particles then become

trapped How? Taken in by the food vacuoles Food and Oxygen Exchange Efficient?

Non-efficient? Why? Lots of collar cells working together Structure of a Sponge Made

of ? Spicules calcareous or siliceous, support structures Spongin fibrous proteins, made of collagen

Spicules Spongin Fun fact: When you wash with natural sponges, this is the portion you wash/exfoliate

with! Spicules & Spongin Characteristics of Sponges Reproduce asexually or

sexually By? Budding or gemmules (asexual), sperm and egg (sexual) Larva: motile, move Adults: sessile, dont Sponge

Love Scene #1 Sponge Love Sc ene #2 move Sexual

Budding Gemmule Three Main Body Types 1. Asconoid

Def: one large body cavity Characteristics : Collar cells line the main body cavity Contain many pores

Three Main Body Types 2. Syconoid Def: many canals, water

flows through each canal Characteristic s: Collar cells line canals Can filter more water Three Main Body

Types 3. Leuconoid Def: contains chambers Characteristi cs:

collar cells line chambers Often used for shower sponges Classification of Sponges Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Porifera Class Calcarea Class Hexactinellida Class Demospongiae Class Calcarea Spicules Made of calcium carbonate (like

baking soda) Shape: needle shaped, 3-4 sections/rays Body types? All three types represented

Class Hexactinellida Spicules Made of? Silica (glass-like) Description: Six sections/rays Body types? Asconoid or leuconoid Often called?

Glass sponges Class Hexactinellida Class Demospongiae Spicules Made of: silica Description: dont have 6 rays

Body types? Leuconoid Other characteristics: only Make up 95% of all sponges Use this type in bath/shower Class Demospongiae

Cnidarians Characteristics of Cnidarians Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Examples:

Hydra, sea anemone, jellyfish, Portuguese-man-o-war, moon jelly, sea pen, coral Where do they live??? Almost entirely aquatic (mostly

marine/salt-water) Characteristics of Cnidarians Symmetry: Radial or biradial Head region? No definite head region Two basic types:

1. Name, def, examples Polyp: tentacles facing upwards Ex: sea anemone, coral 2. Name, def, examples

Medusa: tentacles facing downwards Ex: jellyfish, man-o-war Polyp Form Polyp

Lifestyle of polyps? Sessile (do not move) Body shape? Tubular (tube-like) Mouth: Surrounded by tentacles (facing up) Medusa Form Medusa

Lifestyle? Mobile/motile (move) Body shape? Umbrella shaped Mouth : surrounded by tentacles that face downwards Life Cycle Body

forms? Most cnidarians exist as BOTH body forms at some point during their life cycle Reproduction Polyp: reproduce asexually using budding Medusa: reproduce sexually using sperm/egg

Life Cycle Characteristics of Cnidarians Two layered body Epidermis

Def: outer part of the body Derived from? Ectoderm Gastrodermis Def: inner part of the body Derived from? Endoderm Lines the gut cavity Main function: digestion Characteristics of Cnidarians

Characteristics of Cnidarians Tentacles contain cnidocytes Function: aid in capture of prey/food Characteristics: armed with nematocysts

Nematocyst: stinging cell (contains hook/barb used to catch) Nematocyst Stinging cells Contain filament When do they uncoil? When they are touched by animals (in the environment)

Contain barb or spine Poisons can be injected Nematocysts t s y c o t

a m Ne ng F ir i Four Classes of Cnidarians Class Hydrozoa

Class Scyphozoa Class Cubozoa Class

Anthozoa Class Hydrozoa Solitary (live as an individual) Colonial (live in groups) Reproduce? Asexually (Polyp form) OR sexually (medusa form) Where do they live? Freshwater OR marine/salt-water

Examples: Hydra, Tubularia Hydra Obilia Polyp Medusa

Physalia Class Scyphozoa Movement: Solitary (live by themselves, but MOVE quiet a bit) Body form: Medusa form (most) Where do they live? All marine/salt-water

Organs? Sensory organs found on the ridge of the umbrella Examples: Cassiopeia, Aurelia Aurelia Cassiopeia Class Cubozoa Movement:

Solitary (live by themselves but MOVE quite a bit) Body form: Medusa form (most) Where do they live? All marine/salt-water Characteristics? Umbrella is more square in shape Examples: Tripedalia, Carybdea

Carybdea Chiropsalmus Class Anthozoa Movement: Solitary (individual)or colonial (group); tentacles move some (but animals are fixed to a

spot, usually) Body form: all polyps (no medusas!) Where do they live? All marine/salt-water Examples: Exist in three subclasses Hexacorallia

Ceriantipatharia Octocorallia Sponges and Cnidarians in Biosphere Human Uses

Bioindicators: provide info about the environment/oceans/water bodies Sponges Filter water Pollutants are concentrated in collar cells Corals: sensitive to water pollution (loose

coloration) Sponges and Cnidarians in Biosphere Biomedical/Pharmaceutical industry 1. New antibiotics

2. Anticancer compound found in small % of sponges Consumer products 1. Natural sponges (bathing) 2. Spicules used in clay to strengthen ceramic pots, etc Sponges and Cnidarians in Biosphere

In the Environment Form of food, camouflage and protection for other animals Many symbiotic relationships Corals and Sponges The most abundant animal in most reefs

Base of most aquatic food chains May be used as camouflage Ex: Crab species place sponges on their backs for protection Sponges and Cnidarians in Biosphere Other relationships

Cnidarians with dinoflagellates(protists) Form reefs when this relationship occurs Homes for other organisms Shrimp, clown fish and eels use sponges as homes Coral reefs provide protection

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