South Africa - Methacton School District

South Africa - Methacton School District

Modern History of South Africa Main Idea Statements 1. The separation of races was essential to the minority control over South Africa. 2. Apartheid resulted in the creation of a system of inequality and injustice for the majority of South Africans. 3. Limited reforms were made to apartheid that had little effect on the lives of the majority of South African. 4. Limited political and social reforms in South Africa resulted in Non-White African resistance to white repression. (being kept

down by force) 5. South Africa is making strides to dismantle the legacy of apartheid as well as working towards a more positive future through government reform. Closure A fundamental CAUSE of apartheid was.. A major EFFECT of apartheid was/is.

World Revolution DVD Intro to Imperialism 7:00 minutes South Africa Use World Revolutions: South Africa DVD Bantu Migration Bantu Migration

Brief History of South Africa 1652: The Dutch arrived on the southern 1652: The Dutch arrived on the southern coast and established Cape Town Boers: Dutch for farmer

Afrikaners: white Dutch descendants of South Africa Afrikaans: language European settlement of South Africa began with the arrival of Dutch commander Jan van Riebeeck and his 90 men, who landed in 1652 at the Cape of Good Hope under instructions

by the Dutch East India Company to build a fort and develop a vegetable garden for the benefit of ships on the Eastern trade route Brief History of South Africa 1815: The British took over the Dutch colony. The Boers resented the British and wanted their independence

Brief History of South Africa 1834: The British end slavery in all of their colonies. The Dutch farming economy depends on slaves for labor, so they rebel against the British anti-slavery laws. Brief History of South Africa

1836: The Boer Trek or Great Trek Cause: When the British ended slavery, thousands of Boers left the south and headed north saw as a threat to their way of life Separatists Great Trek Brief History of South

Africa Great Trek Effects: 1850s: The Boers established independent nations in the north. Orange Free State & Transvaal clashed with the Zulu, who had migrated to the same area and owned the best

farmland. the British and Boers defeated the Zulu Anglo Zulu War Anglo-Zulu War Shakas successors could not keep power against superior British arms.

In 1879 the AngloZulu War broke out. Zulus are defeated Shakas Military Innovations iklwa - Short spear was the principal weapon requiring close hand to hand combat. Large cowhide shield was introduced. Constant drilling to keep warriors physically fit.

Boys six and over were apprentice warriors who carried rations. They were highly organized. Impi - Regiments were given various tasks based on the age range of the men making up the regiment. Buffalo horn formation is credited to Shaka. Shaka Reading King of the Zulus Links to Zulu videos Extra History

An 1824 sketch of Shaka (1781 1828), the great Zulu king, four years before his death. By James King, it is the only known drawing of Shaka In 1879 the Zulu army, under King Cetshwayo, delivered a resounding and humiliating defeat to the armed might of the British Empire at Isandhlwana

Shaka Assassinated In 1827, Shaka's mother, Nandi, died, and the Zulu leader lost his mind. In his grief, Shaka had hundreds of Zulus killed, and he outlawed the planting of crops and the use of milk for a year. All women found pregnant were murdered along with their husbands. He sent his army on an extensive military operation, and when they returned exhausted he immediately ordered them out again.

On September 22, 1828, his half-brothers murdered Shaka. Dingane, one of the brothers, then became king of the Zulus Brief History of South Africa 1867: Diamonds were discovered in the Boers republic 1884: Gold was discovered in the Boer republic

Brief History of South Africa 1899-1902: The Boer War Boers vs. British Causes British wanted control of the diamonds and gold. The Boers fought back for their independence. Effects ended with the British in control of all of South Africa

1910: Britain granted self-government to the Union of South Africa The Boer reply was to intensify guerilla war General Jan Smuts (Boer), who had been Kruger's state attorney, led his troops to within 190 kilometres of Cape Town and in response Kitchener (British) adopted a scorched-earth policy and set up racially separate civilian concentration camps in which some 26 000 Boer women and children and 14 000 black and mixed race people were to die in appalling conditions.

Brief History of South Africa 1910: Britain granted self-government to the Union of South Africa Effects: whites controlled the government only Whites voted Boers were the majority, they gained control World Revolution DVD Formal Apartheid 6:00

1948: Apartheid Apartheid began in 1948, under the National Party Rigid separation of races forced segregation Afrikaans: "separateness All South Africans were classified: White, Black, Mixed races or Asian (Indians mostly) White South Africans 10%

Black South Africans 79% Mixed 9% Asians 2% Apartheid Laws Separate development = justification Bantustans/Homelands was a territory set aside for South Africans Blacks Pass laws

enacted to allowed South African Blacks out of their homelands for work = hated Passbooks Could not officially live in cities (townships - Soweto) Bantu Education designed to ensure under achievement only preparing students for unskilled labor. No voting for non-whites Population Registration Act of 1950

Supported Ethnic divisions everywhere divided families Job classification "In 1953 the government passed the Bantu Education Act, which the people didn't want. We didn't want this bad education for our children. This Bantu Education Act was to make sure that our children only learnt things that would make them good for what

the government wanted: to work in the factories and so on; they must not learn properly at school like the white children. Our children were to go to school only three hours a day, two shifts of children every day, one in the morning and one in the afternoon, so that more children could get a little bit of learning without government having to spend more money. Hawu! It was a terrible thing that act."

Example from Israel Effects of Apartheid Created a system of inequality and injustice Guaranteed minority rule South African Blacks = labor = basis of economy Divided families

World Revolution DVD Anti Apartheid Movement 13:37-18:00 5:00 minutes Brief History of South Africa 1950s: Opposition to apartheid forms National and International

National Opposition African National Congress formed 1912 Defiance Campaign 1952 Mass Non-violence/ civil disobedience against unjust laws strikes and boycotts Spear of the Nation: militant branch Opposed minority government Formed first multiracial democratically elected government

Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika The song was the official anthem for the African National Congress during the apartheid era and was a symbol of the anti-apartheid movement song Now South Africa National Anthem Defiance Campaign in 1952 The Defiance Campaign in 1952 was the first large-scale, multi-racial political mobilization

against apartheid laws under a common leadership by the African National Congress, South African Indian Congress, and the Coloured Peoples Congress. More than 8,000 trained volunteers went to jail for defying unjust laws, laws that had grown worse since the National Party came to power in 1948. Volunteers were jailed for failing to carry passes, violating the curfew on Africans, and entering locations and public facilities designated for one race only African National Congress

National Opposition Sharpeville Massacre 1960 Cause: Demonstration against passbooks Effects: worldwide protests against the South African

government, ANC banned, 69 dead Quote: It was then that police opened fire, without being given a order to do so. Panic gripped the marches. They immediately tried to flee but were unable to do so, due to the massive crowd surrounding them. Press reports later described the scene, "policeman on top of Saracen armored vehicles swung sten guns in a wide arc, gunning down the crowd. Bodies laid strewn in the road and on the pavement. The wounded fled into backyards and side streets. Children ran

like rabbits. One by one the guns stopped". The final toll was 69 dead and 180 had bullet wounds, among them seriously injured. Suddenly I heard chilling cries of "Izwe Lethu" it sounded mainly like the voices of women. Hands went up in the famous black power salute. That is when the shooting started. We heard the clatter of machine guns one after the other. The protestors thought they were firing blanks or warning shots. One woman was hit about 10 yards away from our car, as she fell to the ground her companion went back to assist, he thought she had stumbled. Then he tried to pick her up, as he turned her around he saw

her chest had been blown away from the hail of bullets. He looked at the blood on his hand and screamed "God she had been shot". Hundreds of kids were running like wild rabbits, some of them were gunned down. Shooting only stopped when no living protestor was in sight". Sharpeville Massacre

The police later claimed they were in extreme danger because the crowed was stoning them. They also said that the crowd was armed with weapons which littered the compound when they left. Photographs taken by the press later

revealed that the protestors were unarmed and only hats, bicycles, shoes and other personal belongings were left among the dead and injured bodies. At that time no one dared to testify against the apartheid police. Anti-Apartheid Leaders Albert Luthuli: 1960 winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace,

president of the ANC (1951), nonviolent resistance Walter Sisulu: ANC, planning role in the "Spear of the Nation, 26 years prison Stephen Biko Black Consciousness Movement focused on the ability of black people to change

the oppressive situation in South Africa by rejecting the system of apartheid Anti-Apartheid Leaders Archbishop Desmond Tutu: winner of the Nobel Prize for Peace, nonviolent resistance, (1980s) Nelson Mandela (1918-2013)

see Biography questions Brief CNN Video Mandela Feb 4, 1994 Video 4:00

Mandala Pictures and Quotes Timeline NYTimes Timeline Remembering Mandela 18:00 Madiba - a sign of respect and affection Albert Luthuli Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela and Morgan Freeman Mandela and Idris Elba Brief History of South Africa 1964: Nelson Mandela, the leader of the African National Congress, was imprisoned

World opinion turns against the South African government Free Mandela Song 1984 Umkhonto we Sizwe In 1961, MK published a manifesto entitled Umkhonto we Sizwe (Military wing of the African National Congress): We are at War!

"Our men are armed and trained freedom fighters not terrorists. We are fighting for democracymajority rulethe right of the Africans to rule Africa. We are fighting for a South Africa in which there will be peace and harmony and equal rights for all people. We are not racialists, as the white oppressors are. The African National Congress has a message of freedom for all

who live in our country." Robben Island Out of the night that covers me, Black as the Pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. Invictus

unbeaten unconquered In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud. Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, but unbowed. Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the Horror of the shade, And yet the menace of the years Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. William Ernest Henley Poem recited by Morgan Freeman National Opposition Soweto Riots 1976

Cause: Students joined the protest when a new law went into affect requiring Afrikaans in all public school; symbol of white rule Effects Violence, arrests, Biko murdered Causes Final push to end Apartheid Soweto Riots Video 4:00 use Soweto Riots Video

https://vimeo.com/89553694 4:00 Copy and paste into Explorer The Soweto demonstrations of 1976, the largest outbreak of violence in South Africa since the Sharpeville aftermath in 1960. On June 16, Soweto school children demonstrating against the use of Afrikaans as a language of instruction were met with

massive police force, unleashing a wave of confrontations that resulted in close to 400 killed and thousands arrested. Large numbers of youngsters fled the country, providing fertile ground for recruitment of ANC guerrillas over the following years. The Black Consciousness Movement was formed in the mid- to late-1960s by Steve Biko, and like minded activists in South

Africa, as a reaction to the Apartheid state's white racism and the perceived paternalistic attitudes of white liberal groups. The development of the BCM echoed the growth of Black Power in the US. The movement's ideology, although founded in black Christianity, tended towards more militant and radical solutions. This was despite Biko's support for non-violent

action (he was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi). By 1976 the key leadership of the BCM had either been banned or arrested. On 12 September 1977, its leader, Steve Biko died in detention in a Pretoria prison cell. Steve Biko was one of South Africa's most significant political activists and a leading founder of South Africa's Black

Consciousness Movement. His death in police detention in 1977 led to his being hailed as a martyr of the anti-Apartheid struggle. Steve Biko's grave, at King Williams Town. The charismatic and brilliant leader of the "Black Consciousness" movement among "The most potent weapon in the young South African Blacks in the 1960s

hands of the oppressor is the mind of and 70s, Steve Biko was arrested in 1977 the oppressed." and held without charge like thousands of other suspected "subversives." On Like all of Steve Biko's writings, those September 12, 1977, Biko died in detention words testify to the passion, courage, and as a result of beatings by security forces. keen insight that made him one of the most His death unleashed a wave of emotion

powerful figures in South Africa's struggle which led to further governmental against apartheid crackdowns. Biko has remained a symbol of Black pride and defiance. Cry Freedom Clip Meaning of Black Consciousness 10 Minute Biko Video

Biko Peter Gabriel 1980 September '77 Port Elizabeth weather fine It was business as usual In police room 619 Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead

When I try to sleep at night I can only dream in red The outside world is black and white With only one colour dead Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead You can blow out a candle

But you can't blow out a fire Once the flames begin to catch The wind will blow it higher Oh Biko, Biko, because Biko Yihla Moja, Yihla Moja -The man is dead And the eyes of the world are watching now watching now

Play Song We are the World We are the World Haiti Hector Pieterson being carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo after being shot by South African police. His sister, Antoinette Sithole runs beside them. Pieterson was rushed to local clinic and declared dead on arrival at the clinic

Limited Reforms to Apartheid 1982 - 1983 Semantics: apartheid = separate development Passbooks = identity cards Laws with limited impact no real changes

Asian and mixed race into government with no power limited participation Not illegal to have racially mixed marriages but illegal to live together Organizations not banned but forbidden to hold meetings Removal of examples of Petty Apartheid Changed signs to blue and white figures International Opposition

economic sanction and isolation punitive measures to punish a country United Nations placed an arms embargo on South Africa Olympic Committee barred South African athletes from competition/Expelled from FIFA United States imposed economic sanctions

Could not borrow from international lending organizations International Opposition divestment economic boycott to pressure a government, industry, or company towards a change in policy financial, ethical, or political objectives although it hit the poor hardest

divestment threw blacks out of work Tutu argued at least South African Blacks would be suffering with a purpose" We're rockers and rappers united and strong

We're here to talk about South Africa we don't like what's going on It's time for some justice it's time for the truth We've realized there's only one thing we can do Boputhuswana is far away But we know it's in South Africa no

matter what they say You can't buy me I don't care what you pay Don't ask me Sun City because I ain't gonna play I ain't gonna play Sun City I ain't gonna play Sun City

Relocation to phony homelands Separation of families I can't understand 23 million can't vote because they're black We're stabbing our brothers and sisters in the back It's time to accept our responsibility Freedom is a privilege nobody rides for free

Look around the world baby it can't be denied Why are we always on the wrong side I ain't gonna play Sun City I ain't gonna play Sun City Our government tells us we're doing all we can

Constructive Engagement is Ronald Reagan's plan Meanwhile people are dying and giving up hope This quiet diplomacy ain't nothing but a joke I ain't gonna play Sun City Relocation to phony homelands Separation of families I can't

understand 23 million can't vote because they're black We're stabbing our brothers and sisters in the back Play Song (1985) song Effects

Sanctions slowed South Africas economy Consolidated Gold Fields played a key role in ending apartheid in South Africa; Michael Young, the company's public affairs director embarked on the controversial course of initiating secret discussions between the South African government and the ANC at the company's estate in Somerset, Mells Park House. This ultimately resulted in the release of Nelson Mandela in 1990 and the handover of power to majority rule: the events are described in the 2009 television film "Endgame". A growing number of white South Africans

came to believe that apartheid must end in order for the country to grow Show End of Apartheid: Revolutions 18-22 End of Apartheid F.W. de Klerk (1989)

Lifted bans on opposition groups Government repeals pass laws They opened segregated facilities to ALL South Africans Mandelas release from prison (1990) New constitution officially ends apartheid, guaranteeing non-whites rights,

1994: 1st all-race election = Mandela = ANC (speech) Out of the night that covers me, Black as the Pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be For my unconquerable soul. Invictus

unbeaten unconquered In the fell clutch of circumstance I have not winced nor cried aloud. Under the bludgeonings of chance My head is bloody, but unbowed. Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the Horror of the shade, And yet the menace of the years Finds, and shall find, me unafraid.

It matters not how strait the gate, How charged with punishments the scroll. I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul. William Ernest Henley Poem recited by Morgan Freeman Challenges and the Future

Truth and Reconciliation Commission Find the truth about apartheid Mandela heal the wounds of the past Amnesty: legal forgiveness Legacy of Apartheid

Continued economic inequality Issues: housing, running water, Electricity, high unemployment Segregation illegal but still a reality Born Free Life After Apartheid Video

http://upfront.scholastic.com/issues/01_13_14 Born Free 1/13/2014 Born Free Video A world map showing all

the truth and reconciliation commissions in Museum of Memory and Human Rights, Santiago, Chile. A truth commission or truth and reconciliation commission is a commission tasked with discovering and revealing past wrongdoing by a government (or, depending on the circumstances, non-state actors also), in the hope of resolving

conflict left over from the past. established by Mandela after apartheid, is popularly considered a model of truth commissions. In recent years, how has the South African government tried create a better future for its citizens? Democracy New Government/Constitution Preamble Link antidiscrimination laws protection of human rights

Try to improve healthcare, unemployment, education Study Guide for Chapter 6 (Sections 1-2): Pages 132-143 Section 1: Organization of African Unity/African Union Regional cooperation Cold War and Africa

Debt burden: IMF and World Bank involvement Ongoing Challenges: disease, family size, improve agricultural output Activity: African Regional and Global Issues Section 2: Origins and Laws of Apartheid Struggle against Apartheid: domestic and international pressure (economic sanctions), rationale, effects Activity: South Africa Guided Notes, Chart, page 143 #1-4 Terms/People: Afrikaner Apartheid

F.W. de Klerk Desmond Tutu Black Consciousness Movement Spear of the Nation Zulu Afrikaans African National Congress homeland/bantustans Albert Luthuli

Truth and Reconciliation Committee economic sanctions Shaka Open-Ended In recent years, how has the South African government tried create a better future for its citizens? pass laws Nelson Mandela Stephen Biko

Sharpeville Massacre Boer War Boers divestment

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