# Solubility - Mr. Hoover's Science Classes

Solubility (page 314 - 326) December 14th, 2011 Lesson 4 Todays Agenda Explanation of how to answer question # 2 of the lab

Note Questions Reading We will complete the lab tomorrow Question # 2 What is the V/V concentration acetic acid if

50 mL of acetic acid is added to 50 mL of water? The acetic acid is already 5% V/V. Make the solution First you need to the volume of acetic acid in 50 mL of the acetic acid. VSolution acetic acid = 50 mL Cacetic acid = 5% Vacetic acid = ?

= 2.5 mL Now calculate the concentration of the new solution VSolution acetic acid = 100 mL Vacetic acid = 2.5 mL Cacetic acid = ? = 2.5% concentration

Therefore, the final concentration of the acetic acid solution would be 2.5% V/V. Solubility Solubility of Solids Every pure substance has specific solubility

which can be found by looking in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry. The value that it states indicates the specific number of grams of solid that will dissolve in 100 mL of water, this is different than ending with 100mL of solution. If there are undissolved solids in the

solution, the solution is not standard but saturated for that specific temperature. Solubility Curves (Page 316) Used to indicate how much solid of a specific substance can dissolve in 100 mL of water.

The amount of substance that will dissolve will increase or decrease, depending on what the solute is. Example Ce2(SO4)3 vs CaCl2 See page 316 for a better table than the one

in the note To use the table, the compound and specific temperature are used to locate the maximum of solute that be dissolved Example How much solid KNO3 can be dissolved in 2.5

L of water when the water has a temperature of 44 C? V = 2.5 L = 2500mL T = 44 C mKNO3 = ? m = 1.8 kg Therefore, 1.8 kg of solid KNO3 can be

dissolved in 2.5 L of water at 44 C. Solubility of Gases Gases can also dissolve in liquids but their ability to dissolve is dependent on pressures above them. A higher pressure will force gas

molecules into the liquid, in doing so gas dissolves and the gas pressure decreases. Example Opening a can pop, once the pressure is released the gas comes out of solution. The BENDS

Deep sea divers may experience a condition called the "bends" if they do not readjust slowly to the lower pressure at the surface. As a result of breathing compressed air and being subjected to high pressures caused by water

depth, the amount of nitrogen dissolved in blood and other tissues increases. If the diver returns to the surface too rapidly, the nitrogen forms bubbles in the blood as it becomes less soluble due to a decrease in pressure. The nitrogen bubbles can cause

great pain and possibly death Temperature also dramatically effects how well gasses dissolve. Lower temperatures increase solubility where higher temperatures decrease solubility.

Example Cold pop retains its carbonation longer than warm pop. Solubility in Water Generalizations Solids generally are more soluble in water at higher temperatures. This is generally the

case with molecular compounds. There are some exceptions. Gases are more soluble in water at lower temperatures. Temperature has some effect on polar liquids dissolving in water but not nearly as great as liquids or solids. Non-polar liquids do not dissolve in water

and are said to be immiscible. Two liquids that from separate layers instead of dissolving. Liquids that have small polar molecules with hydrogen bonds will completely dissolve in

water in any ratio are said to be miscible. Liquids that mix in all proportions and have no maximum concentration Elements generally have low solubility in water Solubility Categories (P 323) High Solubility with a maximum

concentration at SATP (standard ambient temperature and pressure) of greater than or equal to 0.1 mol/L Low Solubility with a maximum concentration of SATP of less than 0.1 mol/L Insoluble a substance that has a negligible

solubility at SATP Precipitate The solid formed in a chemical reaction or by decreased solubility Double displacement reactions will form precipitates table page 324

Look at the anion part of the table and locate one of the anions in the table. Then look at what cations are listed below it. If the cation is in the highly soluble section then the molecule will be dissolved in the solution. If the cation has low solubility, it will form a precipitate.

Example Will the reaction happen? If so, which product will be the precipitate? Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI PbI2 + 2KNO3 I- and Pb2+ have low solubility and form a precipitate. NO3- and K+are soluble in solution

Pb(NO3)2 (aq) + 2KI (aq) PbI2 (s) + 2KNO3 (aq) Questions Page 316 # 1-2 Page 318 # 4-5 Page 319 # 6, 8 Page 325 # 11-12

Read page read 362 - 374, Questions Thermal pollution is merely waste heat that has been transferred to water or air. How is the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water be effected by thermal pollution? Warmer water contains less dissolved O2

If a diver had the "bends", describe how this can be treated. Decompression chambers are used to maintain a higher pressure that is slowly decreased.

The amount of dissolved oxygen in a mountain lake at 10,000 ft and 50oF is __?_ than the amount of dissolved oxygen in a lake near sea level at 50oF Less at higher altitude because there is less pressure

A Coke at room temperature will have __?_ carbon dioxide in the gas space above the liquid than an ice cold bottle. More gas, because the warm coke can hold less gas in solution.

Hyperbaric therapy, which involves exposure to oxygen at higher than atmospheric pressure may be used to treat hypoxia (low oxygen supply in the tissues). Explain how the treatment works. The increase in pressure in the chamber will cause more O2 gas to enter the lungs and go

into the blood stream.

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