Soil - PC\|MAC

Soil - PC\|MAC

Chapter 13 Soil Analysis Life is hard. Then you die. Then they throw dirt in your face. Then the worms eat you. Be grateful it happens in that order. David Gerrold, American science fiction writer Forensic Geology

legal application of earth and soil science Characterization of earthen materials that have been transferred between objects or locations and the analysis of possible origin or sources Chapter 13 Forensic Geologist Tools Binocular microscopes Petrographic microscopes

X-ray diffraction Scanning electron microscopes Microchemical analysis Chapter 13 Forensic Geology History Sir Arthur Conan Doyle 18871893 wrote about scientific ideas and techniques for

solving crimes in his writings of Sherlock Holmes. This included information about soil and its composition which had never actually been used. Chapter 13 Forensic Geology History Hans Gross Austrian criminal investigator, wrote in his

manual in 1893 that there should be a study of dust, dirt on shoes and spots on cloth. He observed, Dirt on shoes can often tell us more about where the wearer of those shoes had last been than toilsome inquiries. Chapter 13 History Georg Popp 1904

German forensic scientist presented the first example of earth materials used as evidence in a criminal case strangulation of Eva Disch. Chapter 13

History Edmond Locard 1910 forensic geologist was most interested in the fact that dust was transferred from the crime scene to the criminal. This helped to establish his principle of transfer.

Chapter 13 Soil Definition naturally deposited materials that cover the earths surface and are capable of supporting plant growth

Chapter 13 Soil The Earth Chapter 13 75%oceans, seas and lakes

15%deserts, polar ice caps and mountains 10%suitable for agriculture Soil Formation

Chapter 13 Living matterplants, animals, microorganisms Inorganic materials Climate Parent materials Reliefslope and land form Time

Soil Profile Topsoil Subsoil Parent material Chapter 13 Soil Composition Sand

Silt Clay Organic matter Chapter 13 Soil Nutrientsmacro Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium

Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Chapter 13 Soil Nutrientsmicro

Chapter 13 Manganese Iron Boron Copper Zinc Molybdenum

Chlorine Soil Comparisons May establish a relationship or link to the crime, the victim, or the suspect(s) Physical propertiesdensity, magnetism, particle size, mineralogy Chemical propertiespH, trace elements Chapter 13

Probative Value of Soil Types of earth material are virtually unlimited. They have a wide distribution and change over short distances. As a result, the statistical probability of a given sample having properties the same as another is very small Evidential value of soil can be excellent Chapter 13

Increasing Probative Value Rare or unusual minerals Rocks Fossils Manufactured particles Chapter 13

Minerals More than 2000 have been identified Twenty or so are commonly found in soils; most soil samples contain only 3 to 5 Characteristics for identification size, density, color, luster, fracture, streak, or magnetism Chapter 13 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

18 ROCKS Aggregates of minerals Types Naturallike granite Man-madelike concrete Formation Igneous

Sedimentary Metamorphic Chapter 13 FOSSILS Remains of plants and animals May help geologists to determine the age of rocks Some are scarce and can be used to identify regions or locations

Chapter 13 PALYNOLOGY study of pollen and spores Important to know: What is produced in a given area The dispersal pattern Variation in size and weight For additional information about palynology visit:

Chapter 13 SOIL EVIDENCE Class characteristics type of soil may have similar characteristics at the primary and/or secondary crime scene, on the suspect or on the victim Chapter 13

SOIL EVIDENCE Individual characteristics only if the soil has an unusual or specialized ingredient such as pollen, seeds, vegetation, or fragments. Chapter 13 SAND Sand is the term applied to natural particles with a grain diameter

between 1/16 mm and 2 mm. Its color and contents are dependent upon the parent rock and surrounding plant and animal life. (The photo on the right shows color differences in sand from six locations around the world.) Chapter 13 Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

24 Sand Characteristics Composition based on the material of the source also gives the sand its color Chapter 13 Sand Characteristics Texture

determined by the way the source was transported Shape Grain size Sorting Chapter 13 SAND TYPES Continental sands formed from weathered continental rock

usually granite Chapter 13 Sand Types Ocean floor sands formed from volcanic material, usually basalt Chapter 13 Sand Types

Carbonate sands composed of various forms of calcium carbonate Chapter 13 Sand Types Tufa sands formed when calcium ions from underground springs precipitate with carbonate ions in the salt water of a salt lake

Chapter 13 Sand Evidence In every grain of sand is a story of earth. Rachel Carson Class characteristics type of sand may have similar characteristics to the primary and/or secondary crime scene, on the suspect or on the victim

Chapter 13 Sand Evidence In every grain of sand is a story of earth. Rachel Carson Individual characteristics only if the sand has an unusual ingredient or contaminant.

Chapter 13 Virtual Sand Lab Take a look at other examples on the website from the Geology Department at Pasadena City College. Chapter 13 Forensic Geology

in the News A 9-year-olds body was found in a wooded area along a river in Lincoln County, South Dakota. A forensic geologist collected soil samples from the fenders of a suspects truck and the area where the body was found. Both soils contained grains of a blue mineral that turned out to be gahnite, a rare mineral that had never been reported in South Dakota. As a result, the soil tied the suspect to the crime. Check out other cases at:

www.forensicgeology/science.htm Chapter 13

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