Social influence Resistance to social influence Starter: exam questions Explain the role of proximity as a variable affecting obedience (3 marks) Explain the role of location as a variable affecting obedience (3 marks) Explain the role of uniform as a variable affecting obedience (3 marks) Explain the dispositional explanation for obedience (4 marks) One dispositional explanation for obedience is put forward by Adorno (1950) who found that through interviews with 2000 white middle class students, that those who have been brought up by strict parents who tended to use harsh physical punishment were likely to grow up to be obedient. Children raised in these conditions grew up to learn to obey and develop a strong respect for authority. This led Adorno to explain high level of obedience through a personality type. He named this the authoritarian personality. Social Influence
5 minutes Is LOC the only reason for resistance? London Riots Why did these individuals decide to disobey authority? Social support Support from other people who are also defying the pressure to conform or obey. One reason that people can resist the pressure to conform or obey is if they have an ally, someone supporting their point of view. Having an ally can build confidence and allow individuals to remain independent. These people act as models to show others that resistance to social influence is possible. Social support can increase an individuals confidence that their own view or position is correct. Individuals who have support for their point of
view no longer fear being ridiculed, allowing them to avoid normative social influence. Furthermore, individuals who have support for their point of view are more likely to disobey orders. Can you think of examples from your own life? Research into social support Studies showing how social pressure can be resisted from the support of other people Milgram variation: teacher paired with two confederates who either refused to administer the shocks or obeyed the order. - 10% continued to max 450V shock. When both obeyed: 92.5% This shows that if the real participant has support for their desire to disobey, then they are more likely to resist the pressure of an authority figure Research into social support Asch: Unanimity variation. - Asch dropped from 33% to just 5.5% - This demonstrates that if the real participant has support for their belief (social support), then they are likely more likely to resist the pressure to conform. -
Evaluation Resistance to conformity: Allen & Levine (1971) - Whether social support that was not particularly valid would also be effective in helping participants resist conformity. Conformity decreases when one person dissents even if they are not credible in an Asch type study Resistance not just motivated by following what someone else says but it enables someone to be free of the pressures from the group. Evaluation Resistance to obedience: Gamson et al set up a situation in which participants had to produce evidence that would be used to help an oil company run a smear campaign. Obedience drops when disobedient role models are present. 29/33 (88%) of the groups dissented. They did not want the company (MHRC) using the videotapes . Social Influence 5 minutes
Comparison of the two explanations Which explanation might be the best for understanding why people resist social influence? Why? Personality (LOC) or Situation (Social Support)? Social Influence Activity 1 Complete the handout. 5 minutes Social Influence 5 minutes Apply it! You are a member of the student council at a sixth-form college. You are all meeting to elect a chairperson. The three candidates have all addressed the meeting and now left. Its decision time. But
you begin to get a bit worried because the teacher who liaises with the student council is asking a lot of questions about one of the candidates. After a while, it becomes clear that he is trying to influence students to vote for this person. What factors might make it difficult for you to resist pressure from the teacher to vote a certain way? Refer to research in your answer. What research could you use? Social Influence 5 minutes Exam practice: independently answer the below questions 1)Explain what is meant by locus of control (4 marks) 2)Using your knowledge of psychology, explain why some people might resist pressures to conform. (4 marks) 3) Describe & evaluate two explanations of resistance to social influence (12 marks) Question 1 Locus of control is how much a person believes that
they have control over events that happen in their lives. This is usually measured along a scale with internal control at one end and external control at the other. Internal control refers to those people who see that they have a great deal of control over their own behaviour and will take responsibility for their own actions. External control refers to those who believe that their behaviour is controlled by other forces such as luck or fate. Have an internal locus of control Support of colleague Prior commitment Dispositional Factors Models of independence / nonconformity
Exposure to dissent. Credit any other relevant explanation. Students may offer one explanation in detail or more than one but in less detail. There is a breadth-depth trade-off here. Merely identifying reasons without any explanation, maximum 2 marks. Question 2 Resistance to SI Describe & evaluate two explanations of resistance to social influence 12 marks AO1 = 6 marks AO3 = 6 marks Explanation One: Situational: Social Support Explanation Two: Personality: Locus of Control
Describe Give an account of. Evaluate Appraise the worth. Judge from available evidence. Consider strengths and weaknesses. SoAO1 Mark bands 12mark Knowledge of explanation is limited Level 2 Knowledge of explanations is present but vague/inaccurate Level 3: Knowledge is evident Level 4 : Knowledge is accurate and generally well detailed Perfection
Level 1 SoAO3 Mark bands 12mark Discussion is limited, poorly focused or absent Level 2 Focus is mainly on description. Any discussion is only partly effective Level 3 Discussion is apparent and mostly effective. There are occasional inaccuracies. Lacks focus in places. Level 4 : Discussion is thorough and effective. Perfection Level 1
Resistance to SI Getting to know the Mark Scheme Key Terms Explained Key Term at theofmark What it means in theLook context the scheme mark scheme for a 24 marker and Knowledge and Understanding answer the questions.. Showing that you understand the material AO1 Evaluation and Commentary
Critical commentary of the material including use of studies : AO3 Range / Breadth Have you presented and explained a good variety of points? Depth/ Detailed Have you fully explained all your points in detail to show the depth of your understanding? Elaboration! Well Structured /Coherent Have you structured your arguments in a clear logical order? Does it flow? Have you made links and used connectives? Resistance to SI Describe & evaluate two explanations of resistance to social influence 12 marks
Complete the handout AO1 = 6 marks AO3 = 6 marks Explanation One: Situational: Social Support Explanation Two: Personality: Locus of Control Resistance to SI PEEL Description: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. EXPLAIN Explain your point EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain
what the research shows or suggests. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. One factor that leads individuals to resist pressures to conform or obey is Look at the mark scheme support from others. a 24amarker and Social support can for increase persons confidence answer
the questions.. that there own view or position is correct. Alternatively, the presence of other defiant people means that disobedient behaviour stands out less than if the individual acted alone. In one of Aschs variations to his study in which an ally also gave the right answer, conformity levels dropped from 33% to 5.5%. The ally (dissenter) provided a form of social support to the participant which led to them to resist the pressure to conform Evaluation with a PEEL Term P Point Connectives A strength/ weakness is
Notes A simple statement Explanatio E n because Elaborate on the point Example E Evidence For example, Use research if you can, but does not have to be L Link This shows This
implies Explain how the example demonstrates the point. Resistance to SI PEEL Evaluation: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. Aschs findings about the importance of social support in resisting conformity is at thefrom markAllen scheme supported byLook evidence & Levines study. for a 24 marker and
EXPLAIN Explain your point answer the They found that conformity wasquestions.. reduced on a task involving visual judgements if there was social support from dissenter, even if they wore glasses with thick lenses and admitted to having a sight problem. EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or suggests. This suggests dissenters help resist
social influence even when they are not skilled in particular situations. LINK Link it back (not always necessary) to your point or the question. Resistance to SI PEEL Description: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. EXPLAIN Explain your point
EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or suggests. LINK Social support has also been shown to be effective in helping people resist obedience. Look at the mark scheme 24 marker and Milgram found thatfor theapresence of disobedient the questions.. confederates whoanswer were prepared to resist the authoritys requests acted as role models and
made it more likely that the real participant would also resist. Only 10% of participants gave the 450 v shock with social support from two confederates. Link it back This demonstrates how support from others increased the participants ability to your to resist orders point or the question. Resistance to SI PEEL Evaluation: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. A strength of Milgrams finding that social support increases resistance to
the is mark scheme obedience isLook that at there research for a 24 marker and support. EXPLAIN Explain your point the questions.. Gamson et.al setanswer up a situation in which participants had to produce evidence that would be used to help an oil company run a smear campaign. EXAMPLE EVIDENCE
Explain what the research shows or suggests. Gamson et al found high levels of resistance to this with 29 out of 33 groups of participants rebelling against the task. LINK Link it back This shows that peer support ( the participants worked in groups) is linked to your to greater resistance to obedience. point or the question. Resistance to SI PEEL
Description: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. EXPLAIN Explain your point EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or suggests. LINK An alternative explanation of resistance to social influence is that of Locus of Look at the mark scheme
control for ato24 marker and if People are better able resist social influence answer questions.. they have an internal locusthe of control. Individuals with a high internal locus of control believe they can affect the outcomes of situations. Rotter who devised the locus of control scale believed that having an internal locus of control makes individuals more resistant to social pressure as they see themselves in control of a situation and believe they have the choice to conform or obey.
Link it back (Not always needed, especially for description) to your point or the question. Resistance to SI PEEL Evaluation: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. A strength of the explanation that people with a high internal locus are Look at the mark scheme more likely to resist pressures to obey is
for a 24 marker and from research support. EXPLAIN Explain your point answer the questions.. Elms & Milgram, who investigated the background of those participants who were classed as disobedient in Milgram.. .. EXAMPLE EVIDENCE LINK Explain what the research
shows or give alternative Found that disobedient participants had a high internal LOC and also scored highly on a social responsibility scale. Link it back Not always necessary to your point or the Resistance to SI PEEL Evaluation: How do you Elaborate? POINT Make your point. Further support for the role of LOC and resisting social influence comes Look at the mark scheme
from. EXPLAIN Explain your point .. EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or suggests. Not always needed LINK for a 24 marker and answer the questions..
Link it back Not always needed to your point or the question. Resistance to SI Evaluation: How do you Elaborate? POINT PEEL EXPLAIN Make your point. Explain your point However, there are some limitations to the influence of locus of control. Look at the mark scheme forfound a 24 that
marker and locus For example, Spector an internal of control was important resisting normative answerinthe questions.. social influence but did not appear to be a significant factor in resisting informational influence. EXAMPLE EVIDENCE Explain what the research shows or suggests. In addition, Rotter points out that LOC only is a factor in novel situations. It has very little influence over our behaviour
in familiar situations , where our previous experiences will always be more important. LINK Link it back to your point or the question. This suggests that people who have conformed or obeyed in the past are likely to do so again, even if they have a high internal LOC.
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